Heterogeneous Catalysts (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)
A heterogeneous catalyst is a catalyst that is present in a different phase (usually a solid) than the reactants. Such catalysts generally function by furnishing an active surface upon which a reaction can occur. Gas and liquid phase reactions catalyzed by heterogeneous catalysts occur on the surface of the catalyst rather than within the gas or liquid phase.
Heterogeneous catalysis typically involves the following processes:
- Adsorption of the reactant(s) onto the surface of the catalyst
- Activation of the adsorbed reactant(s)
- Reaction of the adsorbed reactant(s)
- Desorption of product(s) from the surface of the catalyst
Figure 1 illustrates the steps of a mechanism for the reaction of compounds containing a carbon–carbon double bond with hydrogen on a nickel catalyst. Nickel is the catalyst used in the hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fats and oils (which contain several carbon–carbon double bonds) to produce saturated fats and oils (which contain only carbon–carbon single bonds).
Many important chemical products are prepared via industrial processes that use heterogeneous catalysts, including ammonia, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and methanol. Heterogeneous catalysts are also used in the catalytic converters found on most gasoline-powered automobiles (Figure 12.24).
Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e
Research Article: Recent Advances in the Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Zn+‐containing Heterogeneous Catalysts
Date Published: February 03, 2016 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Guangbo Chen, Yufei Zhao, Lu Shang, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Xiaofeng Kang, Li‐Zhu Wu, Chen‐Ho Tung, Tierui Zhang. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201500424 Abstract: Monovalent Zn+ (3d104s1) systems possess a special electronic structure that can be exploited in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis, though it remains challenge to … Continue reading
Research Article: Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst
Date Published: October 30, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Mushtaq Ahmad, Anam Asghar, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud, Andrew C. Marr. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141348 Abstract: Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead … Continue reading
Research Article: Static Regulation and Dynamic Evolution of Single‐Atom Catalysts in Thermal Catalytic Reactions
Date Published: November 27, 2018 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Hongliang Li, Menglin Wang, Laihao Luo, Jie Zeng. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201801471 Abstract: Single‐atom catalysts provide an ideal platform to bridge the gap between homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts. Here, the recent progress in this field is reported from the perspectives of static regulation and dynamic evolution. … Continue reading
Research Article: Palladium nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide sheets synthesized using Ficus carica fruit extract: A catalyst for Suzuki cross-coupling reactions
Date Published: February 21, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jaculin Raiza Anasdass, Pandian Kannaiyan, Raghunathan Raghavachary, Subash C. B. Gopinath, Yeng Chen, Yogendra Kumar Mishra. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193281 Abstract: We present a biogenic method for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticle (PdNP)-modified by reducing graphene oxide sheets (rGO) in a one-pot strategy using Ficus carica fruit … Continue reading