adrenal gland | definition

endocrine glands associated with the kidneys


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:


Research Article: Adrenal gland size in obstructive sleep apnea: Morphological assessment of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activity

Date Published: September 20, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Takuma Minami, Ryo Tachikawa, Takeshi Matsumoto, Kimihiko Murase, Kiminobu Tanizawa, Morito Inouchi, Tomohiro Handa, Toru Oga, Toyohiro Hirai, Kazuo Chin, Andrea Romigi. Abstract: The association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activation has not been fully understood from … Continue reading

Research Article: Steroid hormone receptors ERα and PR characterised by immunohistochemistry in the mare adrenal gland

Date Published: July 22, 2009 Publisher: BioMed Central Author(s): Ylva Hedberg Alm, Sayamon Sukjumlong, Hans Kindahl, Anne-Marie Dalin. Abstract: Sex steroid hormone receptors have been identified in the adrenal gland of rat, sheep and rhesus monkey, indicating a direct effect of sex steroids on adrenal gland function. In the present study, immunohistochemistry using two … Continue reading

Research Article: EUS-guided tissue acquisition in the study of the adrenal glands: Results of a nationwide multicenter study

Date Published: June 6, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): A. Martin-Cardona, G. Fernandez-Esparrach, J. C. Subtil, J. Iglesias-Garcia, M. Garcia-Guix, A. Barturen Barroso, A. Z. Gimeno-Garcia, J. M. Esteban, A. Pardo Balteiro, A. Velasco-Guardado, E. Vazquez-Sequeiros, C. Loras, B. Martinez-Moreno, A. Castellot, C. Huertas, M. Martinez-Lapiedra, A. Sanchez-Yague, A. Teran, V. J. Morales-Alvarado, … Continue reading

Research Article: Investigation of adrenal and thyroid gland dysfunction in dogs with ultrasonographic diagnosis of gallbladder mucocele formation

Date Published: February 27, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kathleen M. Aicher, John M. Cullen, Gabriela S. Seiler, Katharine F. Lunn, Kyle G. Mathews, Jody L. Gookin, Juan J. Loor. Abstract: Gallbladder mucocele formation is an emerging disease in dogs characterized by increased secretion of condensed granules of gel-forming mucin by the … Continue reading

Research Article: Adenosine stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis via adrenal glands–liver crosstalk in mice

Date Published: December 21, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Miki Tadaishi, Yutaro Toriba, Makoto Shimizu, Kazuo Kobayashi-Hattori, Jean-Marc A. Lobaccaro. Abstract: Adenosine signaling is involved in glucose metabolism in hepatocytes and myocytes in vitro. However, no information is available regarding the effect of adenosine on glucose metabolism in vivo. Thus, we examined … Continue reading

Research Article: CYP2W1 Is Highly Expressed in Adrenal Glands and Is Positively Associated with the Response to Mitotane in Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Date Published: August 21, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Cristina L. Ronchi, Silviu Sbiera, Marco Volante, Sonja Steinhauer, Vanessa Scott-Wild, Barbara Altieri, Matthias Kroiss, Margarita Bala, Mauro Papotti, Timo Deutschbein, Massimo Terzolo, Martin Fassnacht, Bruno Allolio, Renato Franco. Abstract: Adrenocortical tumors comprise frequent adenomas (ACA) and rare carcinomas (ACC). Human cytochrome P450 … Continue reading

Research Article: Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Mouse Adrenal Gland Development

Date Published: August 5, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lorise C. Gahring, Elizabeth Myers, Sierra Palumbos, Scott W. Rogers, Matthew Whim. Abstract: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (α7) is a ligand-activated ion channel that contributes to a diversity of cellular processes involved in development, neurotransmission and inflammation. In this report the … Continue reading

Research Article: The Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension on the Secretory Function of Canine Adrenal Glands

Date Published: December 4, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jian Yu, XiaoJuan Fu, MingTao Chang, LiangChao Zhang, ZhiQiang Chen, LianYang Zhang, Michael Bader. Abstract: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) can damage multiple organ systems, but the explicit impact on the adrenal gland is unclear. To evaluate the effects of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the … Continue reading

Research Article: Hormonal Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Steroid Producing Cells of the Ovary, Testis and Adrenal Gland

Date Published: October 28, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Zhigang Hu, Wen-Jun Shen, Yuan Cortez, Xudong Tang, Li-Fen Liu, Fredric B. Kraemer, Salman Azhar, Bernard Mari. Abstract: Given the emerging roles of miRNAs as potential posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulators of the steroidogenic process in adrenocortical and gonadal cells, we sought to determine miRNA profiles … Continue reading

Research Article: Fetal Adrenal Gland in the Second Half of Gestation: Morphometrical Assessment with 3.0T Post-Mortem MRI

Date Published: October 7, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Zhonghe Zhang, Haiwei Meng, Zhongyu Hou, Jun Ma, Lei Feng, Xiangtao Lin, Yuchun Tang, Xiaoli Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Shuwei Liu, Chih-Pin Chuu. Abstract: The morphometry of fetal adrenal gland is rarely described with MRI of high magnetic field. The purpose of this study … Continue reading