amniote | definition

animal that produces a terrestrially adapted egg protected by amniotic membranes


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:

Research Article: Early Mesozoic Coexistence of Amniotes and Hepadnaviridae

Date Published: December 11, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Alexander Suh, Claudia C. Weber, Christian Kehlmaier, Edward L. Braun, Richard E. Green, Uwe Fritz, David A. Ray, Hans Ellegren, Cédric Feschotte Abstract: Hepadnaviridae are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect some species of birds and mammals. This includes humans, where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) … Continue reading

Research Article: The oldest record of aquatic amniote congenital scoliosis

Date Published: September 21, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Tomasz Szczygielski, Dawid Surmik, Agnieszka Kapuścińska, Bruce M. Rothschild, William Oki Wong. Abstract: We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Paraná state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These … Continue reading

Research Article: Evolution and Development of Ventricular Septation in the Amniote Heart

Date Published: September 5, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Robert E. Poelmann, Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Lambertus J. Wisse, Margot M. Bartelings, Sonja Everts, Tamara Hoppenbrouwers, Boudewijn P. T. Kruithof, Bjarke Jensen, Paul W. de Bruin, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Freek Vonk, Jeanne M. M. S. van de Put, Merijn A. … Continue reading

Research Article: Endocrine Activity of Extraembryonic Membranes Extends beyond Placental Amniotes

Date Published: May 8, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lori C. Albergotti, Heather J. Hamlin, Michael W. McCoy, Louis J. Guillette,, Paul A. Bartell. Abstract: During development, all amniotes (mammals, reptiles, and birds) form extraembryonic membranes, which regulate gas and water exchange, remove metabolic wastes, provide shock absorption, and transfer maternally derived nutrients. … Continue reading

Research Article: The Evolution of Epigenetic Regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in Amniotes

Date Published: August 29, 2008 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Timothy A. Hore, Janine E. Deakin, Jennifer A. Marshall Graves, Anne C. Ferguson-Smith Abstract: CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, … Continue reading

Research Article: Permian metabolic bone disease revealed by microCT: Paget’s disease-like pathology in vertebrae of an early amniote

Date Published: August 7, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Yara Haridy, Florian Witzmann, Patrick Asbach, Robert R. Reisz, Jun Liu. Abstract: Bone remodeling is an essential physiological process in growth and healing. In modern systems deviations from normal bone physiology in the form of pathologies aid in the understanding of normal bone … Continue reading

Research Article: The chicken embryo as an efficient model to test the function of muscle fusion genes in amniotes

Date Published: May 16, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Daniel Sieiro, Nadège Véron, Christophe Marcelle, Atsushi Asakura. Abstract: The fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step of muscle growth during development and of muscle repair in the adult. While multiple genes were shown to play a role in this … Continue reading

Research Article: Wfs1 is expressed in dopaminoceptive regions of the amniote brain and modulates levels of D1-like receptors

Date Published: March 7, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Triin Tekko, Triin Lakspere, Anni Allikalt, Jaanus End, Karl Rene Kõlvart, Toomas Jagomäe, Anton Terasmaa, Mari-Anne Philips, Tanel Visnapuu, Fred Väärtnõu, Scott F. Gilbert, Ago Rinken, Eero Vasar, Kersti Lilleväli, Giuseppe Gangarossa. Abstract: During amniote evolution, the construction of the forebrain has diverged … Continue reading

Research Article: Ontogenetic Change in the Temporal Region of the Early Permian Parareptile Delorhynchus cifellii and the Implications for Closure of the Temporal Fenestra in Amniotes

Date Published: December 1, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Yara Haridy, Mark J. Macdougall, Diane Scott, Robert R. Reisz, Thierry Smith. Abstract: A juvenile specimen of Delorhynchus cifellii, collected from the Early Permian fissure-fill deposits of Richards Spur, Oklahoma, permits the first detailed study of cranial ontogeny in this parareptile. The specimen, … Continue reading

Research Article: Ultraconserved Elements Sequencing as a Low-Cost Source of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes and Microsatellite Markers in Non-Model Amniotes

Date Published: September 17, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Fábio Raposo do Amaral, Leandro G. Neves, Márcio F. R. Resende, Flávia Mobili, Cristina Y. Miyaki, Katia C. M. Pellegrino, Cibele Biondo, Gen Hua Yue. Abstract: Sequence capture of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) associated with massively parallel sequencing has become a common source of … Continue reading