The Bicarbonate

Ball and stick model of bicarbonateSource: By Ben Mills and Jynto - Recolour of File:Nitric-acid-3D-balls-B.png., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8391122 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Bicarbonate is the second most abundant anion in the blood. Its principal function is to maintain your body’s acid-base balance by being part of buffer systems. Bicarbonate ions result from a chemical reaction … Continue reading The Bicarbonate

The Chloride

Sodium ChlorideSource: https://ahealthyphilosophy.com/article/chloride-an-important-mineral-and-electrolyte OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chloride is the predominant extracellular anion. Chloride is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure gradient between the ICF and ECF, and plays an important role in maintaining proper hydration. Chloride functions to balance cations in the ECF, maintaining the electrical neutrality of this fluid. The paths of … Continue reading The Chloride

The Potassium

Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287212.php#recommended-intake OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Potassium is the major intracellular cation. It helps establish the resting membrane potential in neurons and muscle fibers after membrane depolarization and action potentials. In contrast to sodium, potassium has very little effect on osmotic pressure. The low levels of potassium in blood and CSF are due to the … Continue reading The Potassium

The Sodium

Body-centered cubic crystal structure for sodiumSource: By !Original: Daniel Mayer, DrBobVector: Stannered - Crystal stucture, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1735630 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid. It is responsible for one-half of the osmotic pressure gradient that exists between the interior of cells and their surrounding environment. People eating … Continue reading The Sodium

The Roles of Electrolytes

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology These six ions aid in nerve excitability, endocrine secretion, membrane permeability, buffering body fluids, and controlling the movement of fluids between compartments. These ions enter the body through the digestive tract. More than 90 percent of the calcium and phosphate that enters the body is incorporated … Continue reading The Roles of Electrolytes

The Role of Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

ADH is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It causes the kidneys to retain water, constricts arterioles in the peripheral circulation, and affects some social behaviors in mammals. Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, controls the amount of water reabsorbed … Continue reading The Role of Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Regulation of Water Output in Our Body

Source: https://www.webmd.com/urinary-incontinence-oab/ss/slideshow-why-it-hurts-to-pee OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Water loss from the body occurs predominantly through the renal system. A person produces an average of 1.5 liters (1.6 quarts) of urine per day. Although the volume of urine varies in response to hydration levels, there is a minimum volume of urine production required for proper bodily functions. … Continue reading Regulation of Water Output in Our Body

The Regulation of Water Intake in Our Body

The thirst response begins when osmoreceptors detect a decrease in water levels in the blood. Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Osmolality is the ratio of solutes in a solution to a volume of solvent in a solution. Plasma osmolality is thus the ratio of solutes to water in blood plasma. A … Continue reading The Regulation of Water Intake in Our Body