Respiratory and Metabolic Compensation

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Various compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain blood pH within a narrow range, including buffers, respiration, and renal mechanisms. Although compensatory mechanisms usually work very well, when one of these mechanisms is not working properly (like kidney failure or respiratory disease), they have their limits. If the … Continue reading Respiratory and Metabolic Compensation

Buffer Systems in the Body

Source: https://www.britannica.com/science/human-body OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The buffer systems in the human body are extremely efficient, and different systems work at different rates. It takes only seconds for the chemical buffers in the blood to make adjustments to pH. The respiratory tract can adjust the blood pH upward in minutes by exhaling CO2 from the … Continue reading Buffer Systems in the Body

Solute Movement Between Compartments

Glucose molecules use facilitated diffusion to move down a concentration gradient through the carrier protein channels in the membrane. (credit: modification of work by Mariana Ruiz Villarreal) OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The movement of some solutes between compartments is active, which consumes energy and is an active transport process, whereas the movement of other solutes … Continue reading Solute Movement Between Compartments

Volume-Sensing Mechanisms

Source: By rawpixel.com - http://allfreephotos.net/, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=79966238 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The body cannot directly measure blood volume, but blood pressure can be measured. Blood pressure often reflects blood volume and is measured by baroreceptors in the aorta and carotid sinuses. When blood pressure increases, baroreceptors send more frequent action potentials to the central nervous … Continue reading Volume-Sensing Mechanisms

Mechanisms of Kidney

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Mechanisms by which substances move across membranes for reabsorption or secretion include active transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, secondary active transport, and osmosis. Active transport utilizes energy, usually the energy found in a phosphate bond of ATP, to move a substance across a membrane from a low … Continue reading Mechanisms of Kidney

Metabolic Acidosis: Primary Bicarbonate Deficiency

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Metabolic acidosis occurs when the blood is too acidic (pH below 7.35) due to too little bicarbonate, a condition called primary bicarbonate deficiency. At the normal pH of 7.40, the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid buffer is 20:1. If a person’s blood pH drops below … Continue reading Metabolic Acidosis: Primary Bicarbonate Deficiency

What is Ketoacidosis?

Dehydration may be severe in diabetic ketoacidosis, and intravenous fluids are usually needed as part of its treatment. By Harmid - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4657586 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Diabetic acidosis, or ketoacidosis, occurs most frequently in people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. When certain tissues in the body cannot get adequate amounts of glucose, they … Continue reading What is Ketoacidosis?

Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

Tubular cells are not permeable to bicarbonate; thus, bicarbonate is conserved rather than reabsorbed. Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The renal regulation of the body’s acid-base balance addresses the metabolic component of the buffering system. Whereas the respiratory system (together with breathing centers in the brain) controls the blood levels of … Continue reading Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance