Non-Photosynthetic Alga Enhances the Reductive Evolution of Plastid Electron Transport System

A novel strain of non-photosynthetic Volvocales green algae, chlamydomonad sp. NrCl902. a Light microscopic observation of a cell. Bar = 10 μm. b Light microscopic observation of the orange eyespot, indicated by a closed double arrowhead, at the anterior part of a cell. Bar = 10 μm. c Transmission electron microscopy of non-photosynthetic plastids containing starch granules. Bar = 1 μm. Arrowheads show the … Continue reading Non-Photosynthetic Alga Enhances the Reductive Evolution of Plastid Electron Transport System

Research Highlights: Hypothalamus Capable of Flexibly Regulating Select Components of Cognition

Image Source: https://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/limbicsystem.html Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2771-1 The ability to recognize information that is unsuitable with previous experience is critical for survival. Enhanced attention, perception and memory in mammalian brain may be due to the evolution of these novelty signals. The importance of brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus in broadly … Continue reading Research Highlights: Hypothalamus Capable of Flexibly Regulating Select Components of Cognition

Research Highlights: Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to Mild Covid-19 Infection and Correlations with Age and the Severity of the Disease

Image Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33010815/ Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.038 The knowledge on the relationship between antigen-specific immune responses and COVID-19 disease severity is limited. Researchers examined all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and recovering subjects. Adaptive immunity usually occurs after exposure to … Continue reading Research Highlights: Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to Mild Covid-19 Infection and Correlations with Age and the Severity of the Disease

Research Highlights: Pesticide and Resource Limitation Reduces Bee Reproduction

Honeybees fly into the beehive bringing pollen. Credit: Alexandrumagurean/Getty Images. Image Source: https://abcnews.go.com/US/40-decline-honey-bee-population-winter-unsustainable-experts/story?id=64191609 Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.1390 Pollination can be achieved by many various animals including birds, insects, and bats. Bees are one of the most popular and important types of pollinator. Bee pollination helps both in agricultural and natural ecosystem. However, bees and other beneficial … Continue reading Research Highlights: Pesticide and Resource Limitation Reduces Bee Reproduction

Research Highlights: Determining How Long DNA Last in Resin-Embedded Insects

Aethiocarenus burmanicus (George Poinar, Jr.). Image Source: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/ Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239521 There were past claims about fossil DNA recovery from different organisms such as bacteria, plants, insects, and mammals dating back in time from thousands to million years ago. Many of these recovery claims especially those described from million-year-old amber have faced criticism. Such criticism … Continue reading Research Highlights: Determining How Long DNA Last in Resin-Embedded Insects

Research Highlights: We See Four Seasons, But Our Body Only “Sees” Two

Examples of omics analytes with seasonal patterns (transcripts, cytokines, metabolites, proteins, clinical lab tests, gut and nasal microbiome). Image Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18758-1 The relationship between biological processes and the seasons is not well-understood. Usually, seasonal patterns are identified using calendar dates. Researchers used deep longitudinal multiomics profiling to identify biological seasonal patterns on diverse molecular data. … Continue reading Research Highlights: We See Four Seasons, But Our Body Only “Sees” Two

Research Highlights: Gut Microbiome May Promote Fetal Brain Development

Microbiota, good bacteria in human intestine. Image Source: Marcin Klapczynski, iStock / Getty Images Plus Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2745-3 Dysbiosis is a term for a microbial imbalance or maladaptation on or inside the body. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome during pregnancy, in response to challenges such as infection, altered diet and stress during pregnancy, has been increasingly correlated with … Continue reading Research Highlights: Gut Microbiome May Promote Fetal Brain Development

Research Highlights: Pseudomonas syringae Gene Contribution to Apoplastic Fitness in Different Plant Hosts

Tomato leaf (Lycopersicon esculentum) with bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae). Copyright Melodie Putnam 2009, Oregon State University. Image Source: http://sites.science.oregonstate.edu Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239998 A variety of traits are necessary for bacteria to colonize the interior of plant hosts. These traits include well-studied virulence effectors as well as other phenotypes contributing to the growth of bacteria and … Continue reading Research Highlights: Pseudomonas syringae Gene Contribution to Apoplastic Fitness in Different Plant Hosts

Research Highlights: Monitoring the Placebo Effect with Plasma Proteins in Nausea

Image Source: https://www.health.harvard.edu/mental-health/the-power-of-the-placebo-effect Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238533 Researchers tested whether placebo effects can be monitored and predicted by plasma proteins. Participants were exposed to a nauseating stimulus on two separate days. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo treatment or no treatment on the second day. Significant placebo effects on nausea, motion sickness, and gastric activity in … Continue reading Research Highlights: Monitoring the Placebo Effect with Plasma Proteins in Nausea

Research Highlights: Macrophages Perform Quality Check in Colon Fluid Absorption

Image Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.048 Original Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.048 The primary function of the colon is to absorb fluids. The colon contains a large number of microorganisms including fungi, which are elevated near the end of the segment. The mucous membrane of the colon must regulate fluid influx to control absorption of metabolites from fungi. Fungal metabolites can … Continue reading Research Highlights: Macrophages Perform Quality Check in Colon Fluid Absorption