RNA to Protein Translation Process

Image by OpenClipart-Vectors from Pixabay OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Like translating a book from one language into another, the codons on a strand of mRNA must be translated into the amino acid alphabet of proteins. Translation is the process of synthesizing a chain of amino acids called a polypeptide. Translation requires two major aids: first, … Continue reading RNA to Protein Translation Process

DNA to RNA Transcription Process

Image by Arek Socha from Pixabay OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology DNA is housed within the nucleus, and protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm, thus there must be some sort of intermediate messenger that leaves the nucleus and manages protein synthesis. This intermediate messenger is messenger RNA (mRNA), a single-stranded nucleic acid that carries a … Continue reading DNA to RNA Transcription Process

The Process Of Protein Synthesis

DNA holds all of the genetic information necessary to build a cell’s proteins. The nucleotide sequence of a gene is ultimately translated into an amino acid sequence of the gene’s corresponding protein.Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology By: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology It was mentioned that DNA provides a “blueprint” for the cell structure and physiology. … Continue reading The Process Of Protein Synthesis

The Free Radical Theory of Aging

Source: iStockphoto By: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The free radical theory on aging was originally proposed in the 1950s, and still remains under debate. Generally speaking, the free radical theory of aging suggests that accumulated cellular damage from oxidative stress contributes to the physiological and anatomical effects of aging. There are two significantly different versions … Continue reading The Free Radical Theory of Aging

Peroxisome and Detoxification

Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain an abundance of enzymes for detoxifying harmful substances and lipid metabolism.Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology By: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology A peroxisome is a membrane-bound cellular organelle that contains mostly enzymes. Peroxisomes perform a couple of different functions, including lipid metabolism and chemical detoxification. In contrast to the digestive … Continue reading Peroxisome and Detoxification

What Are Lysosomes?

Source: https://www.britannica.com/science/lysosome By: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Some of the protein products packaged by the Golgi include digestive enzymes that are meant to remain inside the cell for use in breaking down certain materials. The enzyme-containing vesicles released by the Golgi may form new lysosomes, or fuse with existing, lysosomes. A lysosome is an organelle … Continue reading What Are Lysosomes?

Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ribosome

(a) The ER is a winding network of thin membranous sacs found in close association with the cell nucleus. The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula are very different in appearance and function (source: mouse tissue). (b) Rough ER is studded with numerous ribosomes, which are sites of protein synthesis (source: mouse tissue). EM × 110,000. … Continue reading Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ribosome