Research Highlights: Infection Encourages Production of Taurine to Improve Microbiota

Image Source: https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)31681-0 Research Highlights: Infection trains the host for microbiota-enhanced resistance to pathogens Microbiome protects host from infections. This process of protection is called colonization resistance. However, this fundamental process remains largely unknown. Study shows that previously infected hosts display improved gut microbiota to resist infection. This micro-community improvement is associated with changes in … Continue reading Research Highlights: Infection Encourages Production of Taurine to Improve Microbiota

Research Highlights: Patients May Experience Fatigue, Muscle Weakness, Sleep Difficulties, Anxiety, or Depression Few Months After COVID-19 Infection

Temporal changes of seropositivity and antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2. Image Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8 Research Highlights: Patients May Experience Fatigue, Muscle Weakness, Sleep Difficulties, Anxiety, or Depression Few Months After COVID-19 Infection Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)32656-8 Long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain unclear. The study aim to describe the long-term health consequences of COVID-19 patients who have been … Continue reading Research Highlights: Patients May Experience Fatigue, Muscle Weakness, Sleep Difficulties, Anxiety, or Depression Few Months After COVID-19 Infection

Ionic Bond Strength and Lattice Energy

Image Source: https://manoa.hawaii.edu/ Ionic Bond Strength and Lattice Energy (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a measure of the strength of this attraction. The lattice energy (ΔHlattice) of an ionic compound is defined as the energy required … Continue reading Ionic Bond Strength and Lattice Energy

Bond Strength: Covalent Bonds

Figure 1 Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Bond Strength: Covalent Bonds (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Stable molecules exist because covalent bonds hold the atoms together. We measure the strength of a covalent bond by the energy required to break it, that is, the energy necessary to separate the bonded atoms. Separating any pair of bonded atoms requires energy (Figure … Continue reading Bond Strength: Covalent Bonds

Using Formal Charge to Predict Molecular Structure

Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Using Formal Charge to Predict Molecular Structure (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The arrangement of atoms in a molecule or ion is called its molecular structure. In many cases, following the steps for writing Lewis structures may lead to more than one possible molecular structure—different multiple bond and lone-pair electron placements or different arrangements … Continue reading Using Formal Charge to Predict Molecular Structure

Hypervalent Molecules

Figure 1. In PCl5, the central atom phosphorus shares five pairs of electrons. In SF6, sulfur shares six pairs of electrons. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Hypervalent Molecules (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Elements in the second period of the periodic table (n = 2) can accommodate only eight electrons in their valence shell orbitals because they have only four valence … Continue reading Hypervalent Molecules

Odd-Electron Molecules

Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Odd-Electron Molecules (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) We call molecules that contain an odd number of electrons free radicals. Nitric oxide, NO, is an example of an odd-electron molecule; it is produced in internal combustion engines when oxygen and nitrogen react at high temperatures. To draw the Lewis structure for an odd-electron molecule like … Continue reading Odd-Electron Molecules

Writing Lewis Structures with the Octet Rule

Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Writing Lewis Structures with the Octet Rule (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) For very simple molecules and molecular ions, we can write the Lewis structures by merely pairing up the unpaired electrons on the constituent atoms. For more complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow the step-by-step procedure outlined here: … Continue reading Writing Lewis Structures with the Octet Rule