Non-Photosynthetic Alga Enhances the Reductive Evolution of Plastid Electron Transport System

A novel strain of non-photosynthetic Volvocales green algae, chlamydomonad sp. NrCl902. a Light microscopic observation of a cell. Bar = 10 μm. b Light microscopic observation of the orange eyespot, indicated by a closed double arrowhead, at the anterior part of a cell. Bar = 10 μm. c Transmission electron microscopy of non-photosynthetic plastids containing starch granules. Bar = 1 μm. Arrowheads show the … Continue reading Non-Photosynthetic Alga Enhances the Reductive Evolution of Plastid Electron Transport System

Atomic Structure and Symbolism

If an atom could be expanded to the size of a football stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a single blueberry. (credit middle: modification of work by “babyknight”/Wikimedia Commons; credit right: modification of work by Paxson Woelber) OpenStax Chemistry 2e The development of modern atomic theory revealed much about the inner structure of … Continue reading Atomic Structure and Symbolism

Early Ideas in Atomic Theory

Source: https://pixabay.com/photos/atom-chemistry-molecular-physics-1331961/ OpenStax Chemistry 2e The earliest recorded discussion of the basic structure of matter comes from ancient Greek philosophers, the scientists of their day. In the fifth century BC, Leucippus and Democritus argued that all matter was composed of small, finite particles that they called atomos, a term derived from the Greek word for “indivisible.” … Continue reading Early Ideas in Atomic Theory

Research Highlights: Hypothalamus Capable of Flexibly Regulating Select Components of Cognition

Image Source: https://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/limbicsystem.html Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2771-1 The ability to recognize information that is unsuitable with previous experience is critical for survival. Enhanced attention, perception and memory in mammalian brain may be due to the evolution of these novelty signals. The importance of brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus in broadly … Continue reading Research Highlights: Hypothalamus Capable of Flexibly Regulating Select Components of Cognition

Research Highlights: Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to Mild Covid-19 Infection and Correlations with Age and the Severity of the Disease

Image Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33010815/ Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.038 The knowledge on the relationship between antigen-specific immune responses and COVID-19 disease severity is limited. Researchers examined all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and recovering subjects. Adaptive immunity usually occurs after exposure to … Continue reading Research Highlights: Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to Mild Covid-19 Infection and Correlations with Age and the Severity of the Disease

Research Highlights: Pesticide and Resource Limitation Reduces Bee Reproduction

Honeybees fly into the beehive bringing pollen. Credit: Alexandrumagurean/Getty Images. Image Source: https://abcnews.go.com/US/40-decline-honey-bee-population-winter-unsustainable-experts/story?id=64191609 Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.1390 Pollination can be achieved by many various animals including birds, insects, and bats. Bees are one of the most popular and important types of pollinator. Bee pollination helps both in agricultural and natural ecosystem. However, bees and other beneficial … Continue reading Research Highlights: Pesticide and Resource Limitation Reduces Bee Reproduction

Conversion of Temperature Units

Source: https://pixabay.com/photos/thermometer-summer-heiss-heat-sun-4294021/ OpenStax Chemistry 2e We use the word temperature to refer to the hotness or coldness of a substance. One way we measure a change in temperature is to use the fact that most substances expand when their temperature increases and contract when their temperature decreases. The mercury or alcohol in a common glass thermometer changes … Continue reading Conversion of Temperature Units