Colligative Properties and De-Icing (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)
Sodium chloride and its group 2 analogs calcium and magnesium chloride are often used to de-ice roadways and sidewalks, due to the fact that a solution of any one of these salts will have a freezing point lower than 0 °C, the freezing point of pure water. The group 2 metal salts are frequently mixed with the cheaper and more readily available sodium chloride (“rock salt”) for use on roads, since they tend to be somewhat less corrosive than the NaCl, and they provide a larger depression of the freezing point, since they dissociate to yield three particles per formula unit, rather than two particles like the sodium chloride.
Because these ionic compounds tend to hasten the corrosion of metal, they would not be a wise choice to use in antifreeze for the radiator in your car or to de-ice a plane prior to takeoff. For these applications, covalent compounds, such as ethylene or propylene glycol, are often used. The glycols used in radiator fluid not only lower the freezing point of the liquid, but they elevate the boiling point, making the fluid useful in both winter and summer. Heated glycols are often sprayed onto the surface of airplanes prior to takeoff in inclement weather in the winter to remove ice that has already formed and prevent the formation of more ice, which would be particularly dangerous if formed on the control surfaces of the aircraft (Figure 1).
Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e
Research Article: Ice Growth Inhibition in Antifreeze Polypeptide Solution by Short-Time Solution Preheating
Date Published: May 6, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Naoto Nishi, Takuya Miyamoto, Tomonori Waku, Naoki Tanaka, Yoshimichi Hagiwara, Xiaoming He. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154782 Abstract: The objective of this study is to enhance the inhibition of ice growth in the aqueous solution of a polypeptide, which is inspired by winter flounder antifreeze protein. We carried … Continue reading
Research Article: Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae
Date Published: May 26, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Farman Ali, David A. Wharton, Neil T Wright. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156502 Abstract: Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat … Continue reading
Date Published: February 25, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Martin Heisig, Sarah Mattessich, Alison Rembisz, Ali Acar, Martin Shapiro, Carmen J. Booth, Girish Neelakanta, Erol Fikrig, Andreas Bergmann. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116562 Abstract: Ectotherms in northern latitudes are seasonally exposed to cold temperatures. To improve survival under cold stress, they use diverse mechanisms to increase temperature … Continue reading
Research Article: Expression of Ixodes scapularis Antifreeze Glycoprotein Enhances Cold Tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster
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