Common Human Anatomy and Physiology Terms and Definitions


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– are cell junctions that are attached to one another; attached to structures of the extracellular matrix

– refers to the top surface

– refers to the bottom surface

– word which means to produce, as in osteoblast

– composed of collagen fibers and calcium phosphate salts

– is a mineral found in the bone

– are passages that allow blood and bone cells to communicate

– muscle tissue found in the heart which is branched and striated; it has dark line between cells which is called an intercalated disc

– layer of periosteum where the osteoblast can be found

– bone canal which the blood vessels and nerves can be found

– also known as the cartilage cells

– is a chemical found in cartilage

– is the most abundant protein found in the bones, muscles, skin, and tendons

– a fiber which gives strength

– refers to column-shaped; as in columnar epithelium

– tissue found on the surface of the bone

– section which cuts across the short dimension

– refers to cube-shaped, as in cuboidal epithelium

– part of nerve cell that receives stimulus

– the process by which undifferentiated cell becomes more specific type of cell

– early development tissue that differentiate into nerve cells, neuroglial cell, brain, spinal cord, nerves, epidermis of skin

– a biological fiber that provides elasticity

– early development tissue that differentiate into internal linings of respiratory tract and digestive system

– body tissue with a free surface that acts as a barrier; composed of closely packed cells and has the ability to regenerate

– layer of periosteum made up of collagen

– section that splits the frontal and the dorsal region; also called coronal section

– are cells that help and assist the activity of nerve cells

– the central canal in bone

– also called the osteon

– a compound which promotes blood flow and capillary permeability

– regulation of a relatively constant internal environment in response to changes from the external environment

– compose of extracellular fluid (plasma, interstitial fluid); the environment around the cell

– bone cavity where osteocytes can be found

– the matrix of the bone

– section which cuts down the longest dimension

– white blood cell that releases histamine and causes inflammation

– early development tissue that differentiate into kidney, liver, muscles, and bones

– minute projections from the surface of some cells which increases the surface area and can be found in digestive tracts

– section that splits right and left region equally

– is the process of cell division

– while blood cells that give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells

– also called the axon of nerve cells

– group tissues that has a specific function such as heart or lungs

– group of organs that work together to perform a specific function such as skeletal system or muscular system

– group of organ system working together for common function such as human or an animal

– a bone cell responsible for production of bone tissue matrix; involves in bone growth, repair, and remodeling

– bone cell responsible for breaking down of bone tissue

– bone cell responsible for the maintenance of bone tissue

– unit structure of thick compact bone tissue

– the bone stem cell which differentiate into osteoblast and osteocyte

– section that splits right and left regions unequally

– a dense layer of vascular connective tissue surrounding the bones except at the surfaces of the joints

– the process of engulfing materials and bacteria by a cell

– refers to a single layer but looks many, as in pseudostratified epithelium

– bone marrow responsible for the production of red blood cell and white blood cell

– section that splits the right and left regions

– the process of releasing substances by a cell into the internal environment or into body cavities or ducts

– refers to one layer, as in simple squamous epithelium

– muscle tissue which is striated and voluntary

– muscle tissue which is not branched in appearance but has a spindle-shaped structure; also called involuntary muscle tissue

– also called cancellous which is located within bones; consist of branching plates called trabeculae

– refers to flat, as in simple squamous epithelium

– mechano-sensing organelles of hair cells found in inner ear

– refers to many layers, as in stratified epithelium

– group of cells that perform a specific function

– the branching plates found in spongy bones

– epithelium that can be stretched and unstretched; found in the linings of urinary bladder and ureters

– section that splits the upper from lower regions; also called cross section

– bone marrow made up of fats

– a cell that results from the fusion of sperm cell and ovum