Cryptosporidiosis is usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis. These pathogens are commonly found in animals and can be spread in feces from mice, birds, and farm animals. Contaminated water and food are most commonly responsible for transmission. The protozoan can also be transmitted through human contact with infected animals or their feces.
In the United States, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis generally occur through contamination of the public water supply or contaminated water at water parks, swimming pools, and day-care centers. The risk is greatest in areas with poor sanitation, making the disease more common in developing countries.
Signs and symptoms include watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever, dehydration, and weight loss. The illness is generally self-limiting within a month. However, immunocompromised patients, such as those with HIV/AIDS, are at particular risk of severe illness or death.
Diagnosis involves direct examination of stool samples, often over multiple days. As with giardiasis, a stool O&P exam may be helpful. Acid fast staining is often used. Enzyme immunoassays and molecular analysis (PCR) are available.
The first line of treatment is typically oral rehydration therapy. Medications are sometimes used to treat the diarrhea. The broad-range anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide can be used to treat cryptosporidiosis. Other anti-parasitic drugs that can be used include azithromycin and paromomycin.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology