Disaccharides (OpenStax Biology 2e)
Disaccharides (di- = “two”) form when two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction (or a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis). During this process, one monosaccharide’s hydroxyl group combines with another monosaccharide’s hydrogen, releasing a water molecule and forming a covalent bond. A covalent bond forms between a carbohydrate molecule and another molecule (in this case, between two monosaccharides). Scientists call this a glycosidic bond. Glycosidic bonds (or glycosidic linkages) can be an alpha or beta type. An alpha bond is formed when the OH group on the carbon-1 of the first glucose is below the ring plane, and a beta bond is formed when the OH group on the carbon-1 is above the ring plane.– Disaccharide is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by what linkage?
Common disaccharides include lactose, maltose, and sucrose. Lactose is a disaccharide consisting of the monomers glucose and galactose. It is naturally in milk. Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed by a dehydration reaction between two glucose molecules. The most common disaccharide is sucrose, or table sugar, which is comprised of glucose and fructose monomers.Fructose gives a much sweeter eating sensation than sucrose and both fructose and dextrose give a cool sensation as they dissolve in the mouth. Both these characteristics have their values in formulations for some biscuits or the components of biscuits.
Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e
Research Article: Determination of the unsaturated disaccharides of hyaluronic acid in equine synovial fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection
Date Published: March 4, 2015 Publisher: BioMed Central Author(s): Kaisa Aaltonen, Tytti Niemelä, Satu Sankari, Riitta-Mari Tulamo. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-015-0098-y Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method to determine the presence of hyaluronic acid derived disaccharides in equine synovial fluid. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hyaluronic … Continue reading
Research Article: Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters
Date Published: December 22, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Xi Zhang, Fei Song, Maierhaba Taxipalati, Wei Wei, Fengqin Feng, Chien-Sheng Chen. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114845 Abstract: The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides … Continue reading
Research Article: Trisulfate Disaccharide Decreases Calcium Overload and Protects Liver Injury Secondary to Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion
Date Published: February 22, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Enio Rodrigues Vasques, Jose Eduardo Monteiro Cunha, Ana Maria Mendonca Coelho, Sandra N. Sampietre, Rosely Antunes Patzina, Emilio Elias Abdo, Helena B. Nader, Ivarne L. S. Tersariol, Marcelo Andrade Lima, Carlos M. G. Godoy, Tiago Rodrigues, Eleazar Chaib, Luiz A. C. D’Albuquerque, Jordi Gracia-Sancho. … Continue reading
Research Article: Crystal packing in three related disaccharides: precursors to heparan sulfate oligosaccharides
Date Published: June 01, 2015 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography Author(s): Graeme J. Gainsford, Ralf Schwörer, Peter C. Tyler, Olga V. Zubkova. http://doi.org/10.1107/S2056989015008518 Abstract: The structures of three disaccharide molecules, precursors to novel therapeutics, as determined from weakly diffracting crystals are presented. The crystal packing depends mainly on weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bond interactions, augmented by C—H⋯π … Continue reading