Forms of Energy (Campbell Biology)
Energy is the capacity to cause change. In everyday life, energy is important because some forms of energy can be used to do work—that is, to move matter against opposing forces, such as gravity and friction. Put another way, energy is the ability to rearrange a collection of matter. For example, you expend energy to turn the pages of this book, and your cells expend energy in transporting certain substances across membranes. Energy exists in various forms, and the work of life depends on the ability of cells to transform energy from one form to another.
Energy can be associated with the relative motion of objects; this energy is called kinetic energy. Moving objects can perform work by imparting motion to other matter: A pool player uses the motion of the cue stick to push the cue ball, which in turn moves the other balls; water gushing through a dam turns turbines; and the contraction of leg muscles pushes bicycle pedals. Thermal energy is kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules; thermal energy in transfer from one object to another is called heat. Light is also a type of energy that can be harnessed to perform work, such as powering photosynthesis in green plants.
An object not presently moving may still possess energy. Energy that is not kinetic is called potential energy; it is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure. Water behind a dam, for instance, possesses energy because of its altitude above sea level. Molecules possess energy because of the arrangement of electrons in the bonds between their atoms. Chemical energy is a term used by biologists to refer to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction. Recall that catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules. Biologists say that these complex molecules, such as glucose, are high in chemical energy. During a catabolic reaction, some bonds are broken and others are formed, releasing energy and resulting in lower-energy breakdown products. This transformation also occurs in the engine of a car when the hydrocarbons of gasoline react explosively with oxygen, releasing the energy that pushes the pistons and producing exhaust. Although less explosive, a similar reaction of food molecules with oxygen provides chemical energy in biological systems, producing carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Biochemical pathways, carried out in the context of cellular structures, enable cells to release chemical energy from food molecules and use the energy to power life processes.
How is energy converted from one form to another? Consider this example. The woman climbing the ladder to the diving platform is releasing chemical energy from the food she ate for lunch and using some of that energy to perform the work of climbing. The kinetic energy of muscle movement is thus being transformed into potential energy due to her increasing height above the water. The man diving is converting his potential energy to kinetic energy, which is then transferred to the water as he enters it, resulting in splashing, noise, and increased movement of water molecules. A small amount of energy is lost as heat due to friction.
Now let’s consider the original source of the organic food molecules that provided the necessary chemical energy for these divers to climb the steps. This chemical energy was itself derived from light energy absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Organisms are energy transformers.
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
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Research Article: Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout
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