gigantism | definition

condition caused by overproduction of growth hormone in children


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:


Research Article: Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life

Date Published: January 15, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Geerat J. Vermeij, Pasquale Raia. Abstract: Gigantism—very large body size—is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates … Continue reading

Research Article: Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders

Date Published: May 20, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Ronald M. Bonett, Paul T. Chippindale, Paul E. Moler, R. Wayne Van Devender, David B. Wake, Michael Knapp. Abstract: The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, … Continue reading

Research Article: Fungal Cell Gigantism during Mammalian Infection

Date Published: June 17, 2010 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Oscar Zaragoza, Rocío García-Rodas, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Juan Luis Rodríguez-Tudela, Arturo Casadevall, Aaron P. Mitchell. Abstract: The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not … Continue reading

Research Article: Regional endothermy as a trigger for gigantism in some extinct macropredatory sharks

Date Published: September 22, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Humberto G. Ferrón, Geerat J. Vermeij. Abstract: Otodontids include some of the largest macropredatory sharks that ever lived, the most extreme case being Otodus (Megaselachus) megalodon. The reasons underlying their gigantism, distribution patterns and extinction have been classically linked with climatic factors and … Continue reading

Research Article: Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?

Date Published: July 27, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Wilco C. E. P. Verberk, David T. Bilton, Alexander W. Shingleton. Abstract: Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine … Continue reading

Research Article: Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

Date Published: October 21, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Matjaž Kuntner, Jonathan A. Coddington, Thomas Buckley. Abstract: More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400–500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila … Continue reading

Research Article: Respiratory Evolution Facilitated the Origin of Pterosaur Flight and Aerial Gigantism

Date Published: February 18, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Leon P. A. M. Claessens, Patrick M. O’Connor, David M. Unwin, Paul Sereno. Abstract: Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. … Continue reading

Research Article: An Evolutionary Cascade Model for Sauropod Dinosaur Gigantism – Overview, Update and Tests

Date Published: October 30, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): P. Martin Sander, Andrew A. Farke. Abstract: Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors … Continue reading

Research Article: Are Sick Individuals Weak Competitors? Competitive Ability of Snails Parasitized by a Gigantism-Inducing Trematode

Date Published: October 31, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen, Marja Kuosa, Maarit Haataja, Jukka Jokela, Dan Zilberstein. Abstract: Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host … Continue reading

Research Article: Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism

Date Published: October 30, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Marcus Clauss, Patrick Steuer, Dennis W. H. Müller, Daryl Codron, Jürgen Hummel, Peter Dodson. Abstract: Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of … Continue reading