How Colorectal Cancer Develop? (Campbell Biology)
A full-fledged cancer cell generally develops from more than one somatic mutation, and this may explain why cancer occurs mostly on older people. If cancer develops from the aggregation of mutations and if mutations occur all over life, then the longer we live, the higher the chance of developing a cancer.– What does full-pledge cancer cell develop from?
The model of multi-step path to cancer is very well supported by studies of one of the most understood types of cancer, colorectal cancer. This type of cancer affects the colon and the rectum. Each year, there are more than 100,000 new cases of colorectal cancer in the United States, and the disease causes 50,000 deaths per year. Colorectal cancer develops gradually like most other cancers. A small benign growth in the colon lining called polyp is often the first sign. Although polyp cells divide unusually often, they look normal. Eventually, the tumor becomes malignant and invades the other tissues. Gradual aggregation of mutations that turns normal genes into oncogenes (genes that potentially causes cancer) is paralleled by the development of a malignant tumor. The genes often involved in the cancer development are the ras oncogene and a mutated p53 tumor-suppressor gene.– What is the first sign of a possible colorectal cancer?
At DNA level, about half a dozen changes must occur before a cancer cell develops. These changes usually include the activation of at least one oncogene and the mutation or loss of some tumor-suppressor genes. Additionally, mutated tumor-suppressor alleles are usually recessive, and most of the time, mutations must knock out both alleles in the genome of a cell to block tumor suppression. On the other hand, most oncogenes behave as dominant alleles.– At DNA level, what are the two factors that contribute to the development of cancer cell?
Routine screenings such as colonoscopy are recommended to recognize and remove any suspected polyps. For the past 20 years, colorectal cancer mortality rate has been declining due to increased screening and better treatments. There are also improvements in treating other types of cancer. Medical researchers compare the genes expressed by various types of tumors and by the same type in various people with the advances in DNA and mRNA sequencing. The comparisons have resulted in the idea that every cancer is unique and requires personalized treatments based on the molecular characteristics of the tumor.– Are all cancer types the same genetically?
The second most common form of cancer in the United States is the breast cancer. Each year, breast cancer strikes more than 200,000 women and some men in the United States and kills 40,000 people. The worldwide mortality for this cancer is more than 400,000. Understanding breast cancer is difficult due to its diverse characteristics. To improve treatments and decrease mortality rate, it is important to identify the differences between the types of breast cancer. In 2012, four major types of breast cancer were identified based on their molecular signatures. It is now routine to screen for the presence of specific signaling receptors in any breast cancer tumors. Breast cancer patients and their doctors can now make more informed decisions about their treatments.– Why breast cancer is difficult to understand?
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: April 19, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Violetta Sulżyc-Bielicka, Lidia Kołodziejczyk, Sylwia Jaczewska, Dariusz Bielicki, Krzysztof Safranow, Paweł Bielicki, Józef Kładny, Wojciech Rogowski, Apar Kishor Ganti. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195834 Abstract: Transient or constant impaired immunity is often associated with neoplastic disease or oncological treatment. Among the most common pathogens found in patients with … Continue reading
Date Published: July 11, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Shin Nishiumi, Takashi Kobayashi, Atsuki Ikeda, Tomoo Yoshie, Megumi Kibi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Tatsuya Okuno, Nobuhide Hayashi, Seiji Kawano, Tadaomi Takenawa, Takeshi Azuma, Masaru Yoshida, Chad Creighton. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040459 Abstract: To improve the quality of life of colorectal cancer patients, it is important to establish new screening … Continue reading
Date Published: August 6, 2008 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): George Zogopoulos, Claus Jorgensen, Julinor Bacani, Alexandre Montpetit, Pierre Lepage, Vincent Ferretti, Lauren Chad, Subani Selvarajah, Brent Zanke, Thomas J. Hudson, Tony Pawson, Steven Gallinger, Jörg Hoheisel. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002885 Abstract: Familial clustering of colorectal cancer occurs in 15–20% of cases, however recognized cancer syndromes explain only … Continue reading
Research Article: The Proteomics of Colorectal Cancer: Identification of a Protein Signature Associated with Prognosis
Date Published: November 18, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Donna O’Dwyer, Lynda D. Ralton, Aisling O’Shea, Graeme I. Murray, Christina Lynn Addison. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027718 Abstract: Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest types of cancer and there is requirement for the identification of prognostic biomarkers. In this study protein expression profiles have been established for … Continue reading