How Genomics and Proteomics Help Biology? (Campbell Biology)
Due to advances in technology and information processing, nucleotide sequencing and the analysis of large sets of genes and proteins can be done inexpensively and quickly. Both genomics and proteomics have helped advancing our knowledge in biology across many various fields.
Paleontology: New DNA sequencing techniques have allowed decoding of minute quantities of DNA found in ancient tissues from our extinct relatives, the Neanderthals. Sequencing the Neanderthal genome has informed our understanding of their physical appearance, as well as their relationship with modern humans.
Medical Science: Identifying the genetic basis for human diseases like cancer helps researchers focus their search for potential future treatments. Currently, sequencing the sets of genes expressed in an individual’s tumor can allow a more targeted approach to treating the cancer, a type of “personalized medicine.”– How gene sequencing in an individual’s tumor helped the medical science?
Evolution: A major aim of evolutionary biology is to understand the relationships among species, both living and extinct. For example, genome sequence comparisons have identified the hippopotamus as the land mammal sharing the most recent common ancestor with whales.
Conservation Biology: The tools of molecular genetics and genomics are increasingly used by forensic ecologists to identify which species of animals and plants are killed illegally. In one case, genomic sequences of DNA from illegal shipments of elephant tusks were used to track down poachers and pinpoint the territory where they were operating.– What do you call the study that understand the relationship among species, both living and extinct?
Species Interactions: Most plant species exist in a mutually beneficial partnership with fungi and bacteria associated with the plants’ roots; these interactions improve plant growth. Genome sequencing and analysis of gene expression have allowed characterization of plant-associated communities. Such studies will help advance our understanding of such interactions and may improve agricultural practices.
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: November 17, 2003 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Ross C Hardison http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0000058 Abstract: Comparing the genomes of two different species allow the exploration of a host of intriguing evolutionary and genetic questions. A complete genome sequence of an organism can be considered to be the ultimate genetic map, in the sense that … Continue reading
Genomic technologies have emerged as an extremely useful tools in cancer research. International projects such as the International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas, tasked with mapping the biological science of dozens of tumor types, would not have been possible without these tools. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-density microarrays are used to study … Continue reading
Date Published: May 5, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Gustavo de los Campos, Daniel Sorensen, Daniel Gianola, Gregory S. Barsh Abstract: Whole-genome regression methods are being increasingly used for the analysis and prediction of complex traits and diseases. In human genetics, these methods are commonly used for inferences about genetic parameters, such as … Continue reading
Date Published: June 20, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Charles-Elie Rabier, Philippe Barre, Torben Asp, Gilles Charmet, Brigitte Mangin, Tongming Yin. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156086 Abstract: Genomic selection is focused on prediction of breeding values of selection candidates by means of high density of markers. It relies on the assumption that all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) … Continue reading