insulin | definition

hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels; functions to lower blood glucose levels


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:

Research Article: Engineering of Insulin Receptor Isoform-Selective Insulin Analogues

Date Published: May 20, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Tine Glendorf, Carsten E. Stidsen, Mathias Norrman, Erica Nishimura, Anders R. Sørensen, Thomas Kjeldsen, Orian S. Shirihai. Abstract: The insulin receptor (IR) exists in two isoforms, A and B, and the isoform expression pattern is tissue-specific. The C-terminus of the insulin B chain is … Continue reading

Research Article: Insulin Signaling in Insulin Resistance States and Cancer: A Modeling Analysis

Date Published: May 5, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Alessandro Bertuzzi, Federica Conte, Geltrude Mingrone, Federico Papa, Serenella Salinari, Carmela Sinisgalli, Cong Cao. Abstract: Insulin resistance is the common denominator of several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cancer, and investigating the mechanisms responsible for insulin signaling impairment is of primary importance. … Continue reading

Research Article: Redox Regulation of Insulin Degradation by Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

Date Published: March 23, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Crystal M. Cordes, Robert G. Bennett, Gerri L. Siford, Frederick G. Hamel, Kathrin Maedler. Abstract: Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a thiol sensitive peptidase that degrades insulin and amyloid β, and has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the … Continue reading

Research Article: Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Insulin Resistant Humans Normalises Insulin Signalling but Not Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal

Date Published: April 13, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Mimi Z. Chen, Claire A. Hudson, Emma E. Vincent, David A. R. de Berker, Margaret T. May, Ingeborg Hers, Colin M. Dayan, Robert C. Andrews, Jeremy M. Tavaré, Andrew Wolfe. Abstract: Weight-loss after bariatric surgery improves insulin sensitivity, but the underlying molecular mechanism … Continue reading

Research Article: Molecular Characterisation of Long-Acting Insulin Analogues in Comparison with Human Insulin, IGF-1 and Insulin X10

Date Published: May 8, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Bo F. Hansen, Tine Glendorf, Anne C. Hegelund, Anders Lundby, Anne Lützen, Rita Slaaby, Carsten Enggaard Stidsen, Stephen L. Atkin. Abstract: There is controversy with respect to molecular characteristics of insulin analogues. We report a series of experiments forming a comprehensive characterisation of the … Continue reading

Research Article: CPR-IR is an insulin resistance index that is minimally affected by hepatic insulin clearance—A preliminary research

Date Published: May 23, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Tsuyoshi Okura, Risa Nakamura, Yohei Fujioka, Sonoko Kawamoto-Kitao, Yuichi Ito, Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Kyoko Shoji, Keisuke Sumi, Kazuhiko Matsuzawa, Shoichiro Izawa, Etsuko Ueta, Masahiko Kato, Takeshi Imamura, Shin-ichi Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Cheng Hu. Abstract: Increased hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) is important in the pathophysiology … Continue reading

Research Article: Insulin Resistance: Regression and Clustering

Date Published: June 2, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sangho Yoon, Themistocles L. Assimes, Thomas Quertermous, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Lee-Ming Chuang, Chii-Min Hwu, Bala Rajaratnam, Richard A. Olshen, Frank Emmert-Streib. Abstract: In this paper we try to define insulin resistance (IR) precisely for a group of Chinese women. Our definition deliberately does not … Continue reading

Research Article: Serotonin Receptor 2C and Insulin Secretion

Date Published: January 17, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Qiang Zhang, Yunxia Zhu, Wenbo Zhou, Lu Gao, Li Yuan, Xiao Han, Thierry Alquier. Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) describes a group of metabolic disorders characterized by defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is an important factor … Continue reading

Research Article: Agonism and Antagonism at the Insulin Receptor

Date Published: December 27, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Louise Knudsen, Bo Falck Hansen, Pia Jensen, Thomas Åskov Pedersen, Kirsten Vestergaard, Lauge Schäffer, Blagoy Blagoev, Martin B. Oleksiewicz, Vladislav V. Kiselyov, Pierre De Meyts, Jaswinder K. Sethi. Abstract: Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An … Continue reading

Research Article: Producing Insulin from Neural Cells

Date Published: April 26, 2005 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): unknown Abstract: None Partial Text: Before insulin was discovered and purified, doctors could only watch as their patients slowly died of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In January 1922, the prognosis was changed dramatically when a teenager with diabetes in a Toronto hospital became the … Continue reading