mammary glands | definition

  • glands inside the breast that secrete milk
  • modified sebaceous glands
  • situated ventrally in pairs
  • usually terminate in a nipple


Betts, J. G., Young, K. A., Wise, J. A., Johnson, E., Poe, B., Kruse, D. H., … DeSaix, P. (n.d.). Anatomy and Physiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:

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Research Article: Pleiotrophin (PTN) Expression and Function and in the Mouse Mammary Gland and Mammary Epithelial Cells

Date Published: October 15, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sonia M. Rosenfield, Emma T. Bowden, Shani Cohen-Missner, Krissa A. Gibby, Virginie Ory, Ralf T. Henke, Anna T. Riegel, Anton Wellstein, John P. Lydon. Abstract: Expression of the heparin-binding growth factor, pleiotrophin (PTN) in the mammary gland has been reported but its function during … Continue reading

Research Article: Epithelial Cell Differentiation Regulated by MicroRNA-200a in Mammary Glands

Date Published: June 4, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kentaro Nagaoka, Haolin Zhang, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Aamir Ahmad. Abstract: Mammary gland epithelial cells undergo periodic cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and involution. Many studies have reported that miRNAs, which are small, non-coding RNAs, influence a variety of biological processes during posttranscriptional regulation. Here, … Continue reading

Research Article: Mammary Gland Specific Knockdown of the Physiological Surge in Cx26 during Lactation Retains Normal Mammary Gland Development and Function

Date Published: July 2, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Michael K. G. Stewart, Isabelle Plante, John F. Bechberger, Christian C. Naus, Dale W. Laird, Michael Koval. Abstract: Connexin26 (Cx26) is the major Cx protein expressed in the human mammary gland and is up-regulated during pregnancy while remaining elevated throughout lactation. It is … Continue reading

Research Article: Gas6 is dispensable for pubertal mammary gland development

Date Published: December 11, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kylie L. Mills, Angelica M. Gomes, Courtney R. Standlee, Michelle D. Rojo, Peter Carmeliet, Zhen Lin, Heather L. Machado, Tiffany Seagroves. Abstract: Mammary gland development is a complex and dynamic process that occurs mainly postnatally. Ductal elongation and branching morphogenesis are regulated by … Continue reading

Research Article: Food Deprivation Affects the miRNome in the Lactating Goat Mammary Gland

Date Published: October 16, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lenha Mobuchon, Sylvain Marthey, Sandrine Le Guillou, Denis Laloë, Fabienne Le Provost, Christine Leroux, Christian Schönbach. Abstract: Nutrition affects milk composition thus influencing its nutritional properties. Nutrition also modifies the expression of mammary genes, whose regulation is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are … Continue reading

Research Article: Characterisation and Comparison of Lactating Mouse and Bovine Mammary Gland miRNomes

Date Published: March 21, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sandrine Le Guillou, Sylvain Marthey, Denis Laloë, Johann Laubier, Lenha Mobuchon, Christine Leroux, Fabienne Le Provost, Sebastien Pfeffer. Abstract: The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes important physiological changes during reproductive cycles. Until now, data regarding the characterisation of miRNA in … Continue reading

Research Article: Akt1 Is Essential for Postnatal Mammary Gland Development, Function, and the Expression of Btn1a1

Date Published: September 7, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jessica LaRocca, Jodie Pietruska, Mary Hixon, Lin Zhang. Abstract: Akt1, a serine-threonine protein kinase member of the PKB/Akt gene family, plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, and has previously been implicated in lactation and breast cancer development. In this study, … Continue reading

Research Article: MiR-486 Regulates Lactation and Targets the PTEN Gene in Cow Mammary Glands

Date Published: March 4, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Dan Li, Xuejiao Xie, Jie Wang, Yanjie Bian, Qingzhang Li, Xuejun Gao, Chunmei Wang, Robert W Dettman. Abstract: Mammary gland development is controlled by several genes. Although miRNAs have been implicated in mammary gland function, the mechanism by which miR-486 regulates mammary gland … Continue reading

Research Article: Loss of Panx1 Impairs Mammary Gland Development at Lactation: Implications for Breast Tumorigenesis

Date Published: April 21, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Michael K. G. Stewart, Isabelle Plante, Silvia Penuela, Dale W. Laird, Michael Koval. Abstract: Pannexin1 (Panx1) subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular … Continue reading

Research Article: Differential Roles of ERα and ERβ in Normal and Neoplastic Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland

Date Published: November 18, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Rajendra G. Mehta, Michael Hawthorne, Rajeshwari R. Mehta, Karen E. O. Torres, Xinjian Peng, David L. McCormick, Levy Kopelovich, Bin He. Abstract: The present experiments were performed to determine the roles of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) in normal and … Continue reading