meditation | definition

clearing the mind in order to achieve a state of relaxed awareness and focus


Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at


Research Article: Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation

Date Published: August 15, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Tatia M. C. Lee, Mei-Kei Leung, Wai-Kai Hou, Joey C. Y. Tang, Jing Yin, Kwok-Fai So, Chack-Fan Lee, Chetwyn C. H. Chan, Suliann Ben Hamed. Abstract: This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on … Continue reading

Research Article: Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

Date Published: September 25, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kieran C. R. Fox, Pierre Zakarauskas, Matt Dixon, Melissa Ellamil, Evan Thompson, Kalina Christoff, Luis M. Martinez. Abstract: The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one’s own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. … Continue reading

Research Article: A qualitative study of motivations for meditation in anthroposophic practitioners

Date Published: September 13, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Terje Sparby, Ulrich Ott, Mojtaba Vaismoradi. Abstract: Research on meditation is advancing, but few studies about the motivations of meditators exist. Additionally, many forms and traditions of meditation have yet to be investigated. This study addresses both of these issues by presenting an … Continue reading

Research Article: Spontaneous eye movements during focused-attention mindfulness meditation

Date Published: January 24, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Alessio Matiz, Cristiano Crescentini, Anastasia Fabbro, Riccardo Budai, Massimo Bergamasco, Franco Fabbro, Joseph Najbauer. Abstract: Oculometric measures have been proven to be useful markers of mind-wandering during visual tasks such as reading. However, little is known about ocular activity during mindfulness meditation, a … Continue reading

Research Article: Unpleasant meditation-related experiences in regular meditators: Prevalence, predictors, and conceptual considerations

Date Published: May 9, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Marco Schlosser, Terje Sparby, Sebastjan Vörös, Rebecca Jones, Natalie L. Marchant, Dusana Dorjee. Abstract: So far, the large and expanding body of research on meditation has mostly focused on the putative benefits of meditation on health and well-being. However, a growing number of … Continue reading

Research Article: Short Meditation Trainings Enhance Non-REM Sleep Low-Frequency Oscillations

Date Published: February 22, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Daniela Dentico, Fabio Ferrarelli, Brady A. Riedner, Richard Smith, Corinna Zennig, Antoine Lutz, Giulio Tononi, Richard J. Davidson, Vladyslav Vyazovskiy. Abstract: We have recently shown higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during sleep in long-term meditators compared to meditation-naive individuals. This gamma increase was … Continue reading

Research Article: Future directions in meditation research: Recommendations for expanding the field of contemplative science

Date Published: November 7, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Cassandra Vieten, Helané Wahbeh, B. Rael Cahn, Katherine MacLean, Mica Estrada, Paul Mills, Michael Murphy, Shauna Shapiro, Dean Radin, Zoran Josipovic, David E. Presti, Michael Sapiro, Jan Chozen Bays, Peter Russell, David Vago, Fred Travis, Roger Walsh, Arnaud Delorme, Cosimo Urgesi. Abstract: The … Continue reading

Research Article: Increased Gamma Brainwave Amplitude Compared to Control in Three Different Meditation Traditions

Date Published: January 24, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Claire Braboszcz, B. Rael Cahn, Jonathan Levy, Manuel Fernandez, Arnaud Delorme, Joseph Najbauer. Abstract: Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga … Continue reading

Research Article: The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

Date Published: May 29, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Koichiro Shiba, Masahiro Nishimoto, Minami Sugimoto, Yoshiki Ishikawa, Bert N Uchino. Abstract: Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to … Continue reading

Research Article: Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise

Date Published: March 26, 2008 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Antoine Lutz, Julie Brefczynski-Lewis, Tom Johnstone, Richard J. Davidson, Bernhard Baune. Abstract: Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another’s pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact … Continue reading