methadone | definition

  • synthetic opioid that is less euphorogenic than heroin and similar drugs
  • used to manage withdrawal symptoms in opiate users


Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at


Research Article: Determining Effective Methadone Doses for Individual Opioid-Dependent Patients

Date Published: March 7, 2006 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jodie A Trafton, Jared Minkel, Keith Humphreys, Wayne D. Hall Abstract: Randomized clinical trials of methadone maintenance have found that on average high daily doses are more effective for reducing heroin use, and clinical practice guidelines recommend 60 mg/d as a minimum dosage. Nevertheless, … Continue reading

Research Article: Genome-Wide Pharmacogenomic Study on Methadone Maintenance Treatment Identifies SNP rs17180299 and Multiple Haplotypes on CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L Associated with Plasma Concentrations of Methadone R- and S-enantiomers in Heroin-Dependent Patients

Date Published: March 24, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Hsin-Chou Yang, Shih-Kai Chu, Chieh-Liang Huang, Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Sheng-Chang Wang, Sheng-Wen Liu, Ing-Kang Ho, Yu-Li Liu, Gregory S. Barsh Abstract: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is commonly used for controlling opioid dependence, preventing withdrawal symptoms, and improving the quality of life of heroin-dependent patients. A … Continue reading

Research Article: Contribution of Cytochrome P450 and ABCB1 Genetic Variability on Methadone Pharmacokinetics, Dose Requirements, and Response

Date Published: May 12, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Francina Fonseca, Rafael de la Torre, Laura Díaz, Antonio Pastor, Elisabet Cuyàs, Nieves Pizarro, Olha Khymenets, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens, Ulrich M. Zanger. Abstract: Although the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in opioid dependence disorder has been well established, the influence of methadone … Continue reading

Research Article: Hepatitis C Virus Infection Influences the S-Methadone Metabolite Plasma Concentration

Date Published: July 23, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Shiow-Ling Wu, Sheng-Chang Wang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Ing-Kang Ho, Sheng-Wen Liu, Ya-Ting Hsu, Yao-Sheng Chang, Yu-Li Liu, Golo Ahlenstiel. Abstract: Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV) at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary … Continue reading

Research Article: Methadone Induction in Primary Care for Opioid Dependence: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial (ANRS Methaville)

Date Published: November 13, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Patrizia Maria Carrieri, Laurent Michel, Caroline Lions, Julien Cohen, Muriel Vray, Marion Mora, Fabienne Marcellin, Bruno Spire, Alain Morel, Perrine Roux, John E. Mendelson. Abstract: Methadone coverage is poor in many countries due in part to methadone induction being possible only in specialized … Continue reading

Research Article: Functional Impact of ABCB1 Variants on Interactions between P-Glycoprotein and Methadone

Date Published: March 19, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Chin-Chuan Hung, Mu-Han Chiou, Yu-Ning Teng, Yow-Wen Hsieh, Chieh-Liang Huang, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Luis Eduardo M. Quintas. Abstract: Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be … Continue reading

Research Article: Pain in methadone patients: Time to address undertreatment and suicide risk (ANRS-Methaville trial)

Date Published: May 17, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sandra Nordmann, Antoine Vilotitch, Caroline Lions, Laurent Michel, Marion Mora, Bruno Spire, Gwenaelle Maradan, Marc-Karim Bendiane, Alain Morel, Perrine Roux, Patrizia Carrieri, Vincenzo DeLuca. Abstract: Pain in opioid-dependent patients is common but data measuring the course of pain (and its correlates) using validated … Continue reading

Research Article: Impact of ABCB1 and CYP2B6 Genetic Polymorphisms on Methadone Metabolism, Dose and Treatment Response in Patients with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Date Published: January 29, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Brittany B. Dennis, Monica Bawor, Lehana Thabane, Zahra Sohani, Zainab Samaan, Huiping Zhang. Abstract: Genetic variability may influence methadone metabolism, dose requirements, and risk of relapse. To determine whether the CYP2B6*6 or ABCB1 (rs1045642) polymorphisms are associated with variation in methadone response (plasma … Continue reading

Research Article: Rates of Fetal Polydrug Exposures in Methadone-Maintained Pregnancies from a High-Risk Population

Date Published: December 2, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kaitlyn Delano, Joey Gareri, Gideon Koren, Markus M. Heimesaat. Abstract: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal … Continue reading

Research Article: Factors Associated with Methadone Treatment Duration: A Cox Regression Analysis

Date Published: April 14, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Chao-Kuang Lin, Chia-Chun Hung, Ching-Yi Peng, En Chao, Tony Szu-Hsien Lee, Gabriele Fischer. Abstract: This study examined retention rates and associated predictors of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) duration among 128 newly admitted patients in Taiwan. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic … Continue reading