Non-Coding RNAs Play Multiple Roles In Controlling Gene Expression (Campbell Biology)
Genome sequencing has revealed that protein-coding DNA accounts for only 1.5% of the human genome and a similarly small percentage of the genomes of many other multi-cellular eukaryotes. A very small fraction of the non-protein-coding DNA consists of genes for RNAs such as ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA. Until recently, scientists assumed that most of the remaining DNA was not transcribed, thinking that since it didn’t specify proteins or the few known types of RNA, such DNA didn’t contain meaningful genetic information—in fact, it was called “junk DNA.” However, a flood of recent data has contradicted this idea. For example, a massive study of the entire human genome showed that roughly 75% of the genome is transcribed at some point in any given cell. Introns account for only a fraction of this transcribed, nontranslated RNA. These and other results suggest that a significant amount of the genome may be transcribed into non-protein-coding RNAs—also called noncoding RNAs, or ncRNAs—including a variety of small RNAs. Researchers are uncovering more evidence of the biological roles of these ncRNAs every day.
Biologists are excited about these discoveries, which have revealed a large and diverse population of RNA molecules in the cell that play crucial roles in regulating gene expression— but have gone largely unnoticed until fairly recently. Our long-standing view that because mRNAs code for proteins, they are the most important RNAs functioning in the cell demands revision. This represents a major shift in the thinking of biologists, one that you are witnessing as students entering this field of study.
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: January 2, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Laura A. Kavanaugh, Fred S. Dietrich, Yoshihide Hayashizaki Abstract: Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so … Continue reading
Date Published: September 22, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Paul D. Donovan, Markus S. Schröder, Desmond G. Higgins, Geraldine Butler, Antonis Rokas. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163235 Abstract: The Candida CTG clade is a monophyletic group of fungal species that translates CTG as serine, and includes the pathogens Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Research has typically focused … Continue reading
Date Published: September 13, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Galina V. Glazko, Boris L. Zybailov, Igor B. Rogozin, Paolo Provero. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044878 Abstract: Among thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) only a small subset is functionally characterized and the functional annotation of lncRNAs on the genomic scale remains inadequate. In this study we computationally characterized … Continue reading
Date Published: May 16, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Cristopher Segovia, Raul Arias-Carrasco, Alejandro J. Yañez, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Javier Santander, Igor B. Rogozin. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197206 Abstract: Piscirickettsia salmonis, a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular facultative bacterium, is the causative agent o Piscirickettsiosis. P. salmonis has broad host range with a nearly worldwide distribution, causing significant mortality. … Continue reading
Date Published: March 30, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Paul P. Gardner, Mario Fasold, Sarah W. Burge, Maria Ninova, Jana Hertel, Stephanie Kehr, Tammy E. Steeves, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Peter F. Stadler, Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121797 Abstract: Here we present the results of a large-scale bioinformatics annotation of non-coding RNA loci in 48 avian genomes. … Continue reading