norepinephrine | definition

hormone released by the adrenal medulla in response to a short-term stress hormone production by the gonads


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:

Research Article: Fat cells gobbling up norepinephrine?

Date Published: February 7, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Vitaly Ryu, Christoph Buettner Abstract: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls key aspects of adipose tissue (AT) function through the release of norepinephrine (NE) and beta adrenergic signaling. Sympathetic tone is determined by NE release but also by the rate of extracellular NE clearance … Continue reading

Research Article: Depletion of cardiac catecholamine stores impairs cardiac norepinephrine re-uptake by downregulation of the norepinephrine transporter

Date Published: March 10, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Michael M. Kreusser, Lorenz H. Lehmann, Markus Haass, Sebastian J. Buss, Hugo A. Katus, Dirk Lossnitzer, Giuseppe Rengo. Abstract: In heart failure (HF), a disturbed cardiac norepinephrine (NE) homeostasis is characterized by depleted cardiac NE stores, impairment of the cardiac NE re-uptake by … Continue reading

Research Article: Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Enhanced the Infectivity of Enterovirus 71

Date Published: August 7, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Yu-Ting Liao, Shih-Min Wang, Jen-Ren Wang, Chun-Keung Yu, Ching-Chuan Liu, Luis Menéndez-Arias. Abstract: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections may be associated with neurological complications, including brainstem encephalitis (BE). Severe EV71 BE may be complicated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and/or pulmonary edema (PE). … Continue reading

Research Article: Norepinephrine Inhibits Macrophage Migration by Decreasing CCR2 Expression

Date Published: July 2, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Fangming Xiu, Mile Stanojcic, Marc G. Jeschke, Pranela Rameshwar. Abstract: Increased incidences of infectious and septic complications during post-burn courses represent the main contributor to burn injury mortality. Sustained increases in catecholamine levels, especially norepinephrine (NE), contribute to immune disturbances in severely burned … Continue reading

Research Article: Altered Reward Circuitry in the Norepinephrine Transporter Knockout Mouse

Date Published: March 4, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Joseph J. Gallagher, Xiaowei Zhang, F. Scott Hall, George R. Uhl, Elaine L. Bearer, Russell E. Jacobs, Eric M. Mintz. Abstract Synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are modulated by their respective plasma membrane transporters, albeit with a few exceptions. … Continue reading

Research Article: Own Song Selectivity in the Songbird Auditory Pathway: Suppression by Norepinephrine

Date Published: May 23, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Colline Poirier, Tiny Boumans, Michiel Vellema, Geert De Groof, Thierry D. Charlier, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden, Jacques Balthazart, Melissa Coleman. Abstract: Like human speech, birdsong is a learned behavior that supports species and individual recognition. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine suspected to play … Continue reading

Research Article: Prefrontal Norepinephrine Determines Attribution of “High” Motivational Salience

Date Published: August 22, 2008 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Rossella Ventura, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Cristina Morrone, Immacolata La Mela, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Jan Lauwereyns. Abstract: Intense motivational salience attribution is considered to have a major role in the development of different psychopathologies. Numerous brain areas are involved in “normal” motivational salience attribution processes; however, … Continue reading

Research Article: Norepinephrine stimulates glycogenolysis in astrocytes to fuel neurons with lactate

Date Published: August 30, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jay S. Coggan, Daniel Keller, Corrado Calì, Heikki Lehväslaiho, Henry Markram, Felix Schürmann, Pierre J. Magistretti, Anne-Karine BOUZIER-SORE Abstract: The mechanism of rapid energy supply to the brain, especially to accommodate the heightened metabolic activity of excited states, is not well-understood. We explored the … Continue reading

Research Article: The Effects of LPM570065, a Novel Triple Reuptake Inhibitor, on Extracellular Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinephrine Levels in Rats

Date Published: March 10, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Renyu Zhang, Xiang Li, Yanan Shi, Yufeng Shao, Kaoxiang Sun, Aiping Wang, Fengying Sun, Wanhui Liu, Di Wang, Jingji Jin, Youxin Li, Hideyuki Sawada. Abstract: Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) are currently being developed as a new class of promising antidepressants that block serotonin … Continue reading

Research Article: Prefilled Cyclic Olefin Sterilized Syringes of Norepinephrine Injection Solution Do Not Need to Be Stabilized by Antioxidants

Date Published: August 30, 2020 Publisher: Springer International Publishing Author(s): Karin H. M. Larmené- Beld, Stefan van Berkel, Rommert Wijnsma, Katja Taxis, Henderik W. Frijlink. Abstract: Norepinephrine is a potent α-sympathomimetic drug which plays an important role in the acute treatment of hypotension and shock. Commercially available norepinephrine solutions contain sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) as … Continue reading