Nucleotide Polymers


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Nucleotide Polymers (Campbell Biology)

The linkage of nucleotides into a polynucleotide involves a dehydration reaction. In the polynucleotide, adjacent nucleotides are joined by a phosphodiester linkage, which consists of a phosphate group that links the sugars of two nucleotides. This bonding results in a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate units called the sugar-phosphate backbone. The two free ends of the polymer are distinctly different from each other. One end has a phosphate attached to a 5′ carbon, and the other end has a hydroxyl group on a 3′ carbon; we refer to these as the 5′ end and the 3′ end, respectively. We can say that a polynucleotide has a built-in directionality along its sugar-phosphate backbone, from 5′ to 3′, somewhat like a one-way street. The bases are attached all along the sugar-phosphate backbone.

The sequence of bases along a DNA (or mRNA) polymer is unique for each gene and provides very specific information to the cell. Because genes are hundreds to thousands of nucleotides long, the number of possible base sequences is effectively limitless. The information carried by the gene is encoded in its specific sequence of the four DNA bases. For example, the sequence 5′-AGGTAACTT-3′ means one thing, whereas the sequence 5′-CGCTTTAAC-3′ has a different meaning. The linear order of bases in a gene specifies the amino acid sequence—the primary structure—of a protein, which in turn specifies that protein’s 3-D structure, thus enabling its function in the cell.


Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition.


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