opiate | definition

  • also called opioid
  • one of a category of drugs that has strong analgesic properties
  • opiates are produced from
    the resin of the opium poppy
  • includes heroin, morphine, methadone, and codeine


Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology-2e


Research Article: Enlarged Cavum Septum Pellucidum as a Neurodevelopmental Marker in Adolescent-Onset Opiate Dependence

Date Published: October 24, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jaeuk Hwang, Jieun E. Kim, Marc J. Kaufman, Perry F. Renshaw, Sujung Yoon, Deborah A. Yurgelun-Todd, Yera Choi, Chansoo Jun, In Kyoon Lyoo, Grainne M. McAlonan. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078590 Abstract: Adolescent-onset exposure to highly addictive substances such as opiates may induce far-reaching deleterious effects on later mental … Continue reading

Research Article: Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Opiate Use and Retention in Methadone Maintenance Treatment in China: A Randomised Trial

Date Published: June 24, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Shujun Pan, Haifeng Jiang, Jiang Du, Hanhui Chen, Zhibin Li, Walter Ling, Min Zhao, Bernard Le Foll. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127598 Abstract: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely available in China; but, high rates of illicit opiate use and dropout are problematic. The aim of this study … Continue reading

Research Article: Blood-Borne Hepatitis in Opiate Users in Iran: A Poor Outlook and Urgent Need to Change Nationwide Screening Policy

Date Published: December 2, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Behnam Honarvar, Neda Odoomi, Mohsen Moghadami, Parvin Afsar Kazerooni, Alireza Hassanabadi, Parvin Zare Dolatabadi, Ehsan Farzanfar, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Jason Blackard. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082230 Abstract: Iran has the highest rate of opiate use worldwide. However, most opiate users are not screened for hepatitis virus infections. This … Continue reading

Research Article: Early versus Late-Phase Consolidation of Opiate Reward Memories Requires Distinct Molecular and Temporal Mechanisms in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Cortical Pathway

Date Published: May 16, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Shervin Gholizadeh, Ninglei Sun, Xavier De Jaeger, Melanie Bechard, Lique Coolen, Steven R. Laviolette, Lisa Carlson Lyons. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063612 Abstract: The consolidation of newly acquired memories involves the temporal transition from a recent, less stable trace to a more permanent consolidated form. Opiates possess potent rewarding … Continue reading

Research Article: Opiate-Induced Suppression of Rat Hypoglossal Motoneuron Activity and Its Reversal by Ampakine Therapy

Date Published: January 19, 2010 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Amanda R. Lorier, Gregory D. Funk, John J. Greer, Shawn Hochman. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008766 Abstract: Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate tongue muscles and are vital for maintaining upper-airway patency during inspiration. Depression of XII nerve activity by opioid analgesics is a significant clinical problem, but underlying mechanisms are … Continue reading

Research Article: Glucocorticoids Regulation of FosB/ΔFosB Expression Induced by Chronic Opiate Exposure in the Brain Stress System

Date Published: November 21, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Daniel García-Pérez, M. Luisa Laorden, M. Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez, Yvette Tache. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050264 Abstract: Chronic use of drugs of abuse profoundly alters stress-responsive system. Repeated exposure to morphine leads to accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, particularly in brain areas associated with reward and stress. … Continue reading

Research Article: Direct Facilitatory Role of Paragigantocellularis Neurons in Opiate Withdrawal-Induced Hyperactivity of Rat Locus Coeruleus Neurons: An In Vitro Study

Date Published: July 31, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Ayat Kaeidi, Hossein Azizi, Mohammad Javan, S. Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Yaghoub Fathollahi, Saeed Semnanian, James Edgar McCutcheon. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134873 Abstract: Studies have shown that following opiate withdrawal, the spontaneous discharge rate of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons remarkably increases. Combination of intrinsic mechanisms with extrinsic excitatory … Continue reading

Research Article: Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice

Date Published: September 12, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Raphaël Weibel, David Reiss, Laurie Karchewski, Olivier Gardon, Audrey Matifas, Dominique Filliol, Jérôme A. J. Becker, John N. Wood, Brigitte L. Kieffer, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff, Thiago Mattar Cunha. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074706 Abstract: Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout … Continue reading

Research Article: Opiate Sensitization Induces FosB/ΔFosB Expression in Prefrontal Cortical, Striatal and Amygdala Brain Regions

Date Published: August 23, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Gary B. Kaplan, Kimberly A. Leite-Morris, WenYing Fan, Angela J. Young, Marsha D. Guy, Pranela Rameshwar. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023574 Abstract: Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral … Continue reading

Research Article: Changes in opiate and stimulant use through 10 years: The role of contextual factors, mental health disorders and psychosocial factors in a prospective SUD treatment cohort study

Date Published: January 25, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Grethe Lauritzen, Trond Nordfjærn, Antonio Verdejo-García. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190381 Abstract: To examine temporal changes in opiate and stimulant use among patients in substance abuse treatment over a ten-year observation period and to explore the role of contextual factors, mental health disorders and psychosocial factors on these … Continue reading