pineal gland | definition

endocrine structure located inside the brain that releases melatonin


Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at


Research Article: The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases

Date Published: February 17, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jerry Vriend, Wenjun Liu, Russel J. Reiter, Rita Rezzani. Abstract: A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available … Continue reading

Research Article: Diagnostic accuracy of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of pineal gland calcification

Date Published: March 9, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lisa C. Adams, Sarah M. Böker, Yvonne Y. Bender, Gerd Diederichs, Eva M. Fallenberg, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus R. Makowski, Quan Jiang. Abstract: To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) … Continue reading

Research Article: Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator

Date Published: November 18, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): María P. Ibañez Rodriguez, Stephen C. Noctor, Estela M. Muñoz, Serge Nataf. Abstract: The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been … Continue reading

Research Article: Pineal Gland Calcification in Kurdistan: A Cross-Sectional Study of 480 Roentgenograms

Date Published: July 14, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kahee A. Mohammed, Eric Adjei Boakye, Honer A. Ismail, Christian J. Geneus, Betelihem B. Tobo, Paula M. Buchanan, Alan P. Zelicoff, Luigi F. Rodella. Abstract: The goal of this study was to compare the incidence of Pineal Gland Calcification (PGC) by age group … Continue reading

Research Article: Circadian-Related Heteromerization of Adrenergic and Dopamine D4 Receptors Modulates Melatonin Synthesis and Release in the Pineal Gland

Date Published: June 19, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sergio González, David Moreno-Delgado, Estefanía Moreno, Kamil Pérez-Capote, Rafael Franco, Josefa Mallol, Antoni Cortés, Vicent Casadó, Carme Lluís, Jordi Ortiz, Sergi Ferré, Enric Canela, Peter J. McCormick, Ueli Schibler Abstract: Dopamine and adrenergic receptor complexes form under a circadian-regulated cycle and directly modulate melatonin … Continue reading

Research Article: Alternative Isoform Analysis of Ttc8 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland Using a Multi-Platform Sequencing Approach Reveals Neural Regulation

Date Published: September 29, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Stephen W. Hartley, James C. Mullikin, David C. Klein, Morgan Park, Steven L. Coon, Massimo Caputi. Abstract: Alternative isoform regulation (AIR) vastly increases transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in numerous biological processes and pathologies. However, the detection and analysis of isoform-level … Continue reading

Research Article: Single-cell RNA sequencing of the mammalian pineal gland identifies two pinealocyte subtypes and cell type-specific daily patterns of gene expression

Date Published: October 22, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Joseph C. Mays, Michael C. Kelly, Steven L. Coon, Lynne Holtzclaw, Martin F. Rath, Matthew W. Kelley, David C. Klein, Shin Yamazaki. Abstract: The vertebrate pineal gland is dedicated to the production of the hormone melatonin, which increases at night to influence circadian … Continue reading

Research Article: CRX Is a Diagnostic Marker of Retinal and Pineal Lineage Tumors

Date Published: November 20, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sandro Santagata, Cecile L. Maire, Ahmed Idbaih, Lars Geffers, Mick Correll, Kristina Holton, John Quackenbush, Keith L. Ligon, Patrick Callaerts. Abstract: CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To … Continue reading