Pneumococcal Meningitis


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a)Micrograph of green closing circles in pairs on a dark background. Photograph of a red plate with  brown colonies. Clearing is seen around the colonies.
(a) Digitally colorized fluorescent antibody stained micrograph of Streptococcus pneumoniae in CSF. (b) S. pneumoniae growing on blood agar. (credit a: modification of work by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit b: modification of work by Nathan Reading)

OpenStax Microbiology

Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by the encapsulated gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae (pneumococcus, also called strep pneumo). This organism is commonly found in the microbiota of the pharynx of 30–70% of young children, depending on the sampling method, while S. pneumoniae can be found in fewer than 5% of healthy adults. Although it is often present without disease symptoms, this microbe can cross the blood-brain barrier in susceptible individuals. In some cases, it may also result in septicemia. Since the introduction of the Hib vaccine, S. pneumoniae has become the leading cause of meningitis in humans aged 2 months through adulthood.

S. pneumoniae can be identified in CSF samples using gram-stained specimens, latex agglutination, and immunochromatographic RDT specific for S. pneumoniae. In gram-stained samples, S. pneumoniae appears as gram-positive, lancet-shaped diplococci. Identification of S. pneumoniae can also be achieved using cultures of CSF and blood, and at least 93 distinct serotypes can be identified based on the quellung reaction to unique capsular polysaccharides. PCR and RT-PCR assays are also available to confirm identification.

Major virulence factors produced by S. pneumoniae include PI-1 pilin for adherence to host cells (pneumococcal adherence) and virulence factor B (PavB) for attachment to cells of the respiratory tract; choline-binding proteins (cbpA) that bind to epithelial cells and interfere with immune factors IgA and C3; and the cytoplasmic bacterial toxin pneumolysin that triggers an inflammatory response.

With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, pneumococcal meningitis is typically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as levofloxacin,  cefotaxime,  penicillin, or other β-lactam antibiotics.


Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: