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  • What is Schemata?
    What is Schemata? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) A schema is a mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts (Bartlett, 1932). There are many different types of schemata, and they all have one thing in common: schemata are a method of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently. When a schema is activated, the … Continue reading What is Schemata?
  • Isolation of Iron
    Isolation of Iron (Openstax Chemistry 2e) The early application of iron to the manufacture of tools and weapons was possible because of the wide distribution of iron ores and the ease with which iron compounds in the ores could be reduced by carbon. For a long time, charcoal was the form of carbon used in the reduction … Continue reading Isolation of Iron
  • What is Carbon?
    What is Carbon? (Openstax Chemistry 2e) Carbon occurs in the uncombined (elemental) state in many forms, such as diamond, graphite, charcoal, coke, carbon black, graphene, and fullerene. Diamond, shown in Figure 1, is a very hard crystalline material that is colorless and transparent when pure. Each atom forms four single bonds to four other atoms at the corners … Continue reading What is Carbon?
  • What Are Fuel Cells?
    What are fuel cells? (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) A fuel cell is a galvanic cell that uses traditional combustive fuels, most often hydrogen or methane, that are continuously fed into the cell along with an oxidant. (An alternative, but not very popular, name for a fuel cell is a flow battery.) Within the cell, fuel and oxidant undergo the same redox … Continue reading What Are Fuel Cells?
  • Research Highlights: Bacterial Protein Makes “Zombie” Plant
    Bacterial Protein Makes “Zombie” Plant September 18, 2021 Obligate parasite is an organism that completes its life-cycle by exploiting a suitable host. Some obligate parasites induce significant observable changes in their hosts which allows the parasites to be transmitted easily to other trophic levels. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well understood. Researchers demonstrated how … Continue reading Research Highlights: Bacterial Protein Makes “Zombie” Plant
  • Research Highlights: Vitamin B12 May Alleviate Parkinson’s Disease
    Vitamin B12 May Alleviate Parkinson’s Disease September 14, 2021 Cobalamin, also known as Vitamin B12, is a water-soluble vitamin associated with metabolism.[2] Vitamin B12 plays an important role in the normal functioning of the nervous system.[2] Myelin works as an insulator of nerve cell axon to increase the rate of electrical impulses.[3] Severe vitamin B12 deficiencies have … Continue reading Research Highlights: Vitamin B12 May Alleviate Parkinson’s Disease
  • Research Highlights: Therapeutic Drug Accumulation in Gut Bacteria May Explain Individual Differences in Drug Response
    Therapeutic Drug Accumulation in Gut Bacteria May Explain Individual Differences in Drug Response September 12, 2021 The availability and efficacy of therapeutic drugs can be regulated by gut bacteria. However, the systemic mapping of the drug-bacteria interactions has only started recently. The primary underlying mechanism suggested is that microorganisms chemically transform drugs in the process called biotransformation. … Continue reading Research Highlights: Therapeutic Drug Accumulation in Gut Bacteria May Explain Individual Differences in Drug Response
  • Biological Rhythms
    Biological Rhythms (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Biological rhythms are internal rhythms of biological activity. A woman’s menstrual cycle is an example of a biological rhythm—a recurring, cyclical pattern of bodily changes. One complete menstrual cycle takes about 28 days—a lunar month—but many biological cycles are much shorter. For example, body temperature fluctuates cyclically over a 24-hour period (Figure 1). … Continue reading Biological Rhythms
  • What is a Stimulant?
    What is a Stimulant? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Stimulants are drugs that tend to increase overall levels of neural activity. Many of these drugs act as agonists of the dopamine neurotransmitter system. Dopamine activity is often associated with reward and craving; therefore, drugs that affect dopamine neurotransmission often have abuse liability. Drugs in this category include cocaine, amphetamines (including … Continue reading What is a Stimulant?
  • Research Highlights: The Teamwork of Neutrophil and Macrophage to Kill Bacterial Pathogens
    The Teamwork of Neutrophil and Macrophage to Kill Bacterial Pathogens September 11, 2021 Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes. S. aureus is usually part of the human body’s microbiome however, it causes a wide range of illnesses which includes skin infections, food poisoning, and bone/joint infections.[2] S. aureus is … Continue reading Research Highlights: The Teamwork of Neutrophil and Macrophage to Kill Bacterial Pathogens
  • Pain Perception
    Pain Perception (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Pain is an unpleasant experience that involves both physical and psychological components. Feeling pain is quite adaptive because it makes us aware of an injury, and it motivates us to remove ourselves from the cause of that injury. In addition, pain also makes us less likely to suffer additional injury because we … Continue reading Pain Perception
  • High Intelligence: Nature or Nurture?
    High Intelligence: Nature or Nurture? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Where does high intelligence come from? Some researchers believe that intelligence is a trait inherited from a person’s parents. Scientists who research this topic typically use twin studies to determine the heritability of intelligence. The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart is one of the most well-known twin studies. In this … Continue reading High Intelligence: Nature or Nurture?
  • Death and Dying
    Death and Dying (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Every story has an ending. Death marks the end of your life story (Figure 1). Our culture and individual backgrounds influence how we view death. In some cultures, death is accepted as a natural part of life and is embraced. In contrast, until about 50 years ago in the United States, … Continue reading Death and Dying
  • Research Highlights: Massive New Species from Cambrian Period Discovered in Canada
    Research Highlights: Massive New Species from Cambrian Period Discovered in Canada September 10, 2021 Radiodonts are arthropods that existed worldwide during the Cambrian period.[2] Radiodonts are known by their distinctive frontal appendages which are structurally diverse and used for many functions.[2] Radiodonts were among the largest and most diversified lower palaeozoic predators. Lower Palaeozoic includes three geological … Continue reading Research Highlights: Massive New Species from Cambrian Period Discovered in Canada
  • Image: Rare old image of extinct Tasmanian Tiger of Australia. Credits: National Film and Sound Archive of Australia
  • Research Highlights: Can Blood Withstand Absolute Zero Temperature?
    Can Blood Withstand Absolute Zero Temperature? September 7, 2021 One of the things that make humans alive is the liquid called blood.[2] Whole blood is a mixture of cellular elements, colloids, and crystalloids.[2] Blood consists of red blood cells also known as erythrocytes which is responsible for transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and … Continue reading Research Highlights: Can Blood Withstand Absolute Zero Temperature?
  • Image: Close-up of Jupiter. Credits: NASA/ESA
  • What are Amalgams?
    What are Amalgams? (Openstax Chemistry 2e) An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with one or more other metals. This is similar to considering steel to be an alloy of iron with other metals. Most metals will form an amalgam with mercury, with the main exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum. Due to toxicity issues with … Continue reading What are Amalgams?
  • Research Highlights: Reports of Giant Panda Attacking Humans
    Reports of Giant Panda Attacking Humans September 5, 2021 Giant panda bred in city zoos rarely attack human. Giant panda belongs in the Carnivora order and usually found in the Chinese provinces which include Gansu and Sichuan. Giant panda is considered a national treasure in China. Giant panda is regarded as having gentle temperament and is protected … Continue reading Research Highlights: Reports of Giant Panda Attacking Humans
  • Should Women Who Use Drugs During Pregnancy Be Arrested and Jailed?
    Should Women Who Use Drugs During Pregnancy Be Arrested and Jailed? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) As you now know, women who use drugs or alcohol during pregnancy can cause serious lifelong harm to their child. Some people have advocated mandatory screenings for women who are pregnant and have a history of drug abuse, and if the women continue … Continue reading Should Women Who Use Drugs During Pregnancy Be Arrested and Jailed?
  • Facial Expression and Recognition of Emotions
    Facial Expression and Recognition of Emotions (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Culture can impact the way in which people display emotion. A cultural display rule is one of a collection of culturally specific standards that govern the types and frequencies of displays of emotions that are acceptable (Malatesta & Haviland, 1982). Therefore, people from varying cultural backgrounds can have very different … Continue reading Facial Expression and Recognition of Emotions
  • Group 1: The Alkali Metals
    Group 1: The Alkali Metals (Openstax Chemistry 2e) The alkali metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium constitute group 1 of the periodic table. Although hydrogen is in group 1 (and also in group 17), it is a non-metal and deserves separate consideration later in this chapter. The name alkali metal is in reference to the … Continue reading Group 1: The Alkali Metals
  • What is Electrolysis?
    What is Electrolysis? (Openstax Chemistry 2e) Ions of metals in groups 1 and 2, along with aluminum, are very difficult to reduce; therefore, it is necessary to prepare these elements by electrolysis, an important process discussed in the chapter on electrochemistry. Briefly, electrolysis involves using electrical energy to drive unfavorable chemical reactions to completion; it is useful … Continue reading What is Electrolysis?
  • What is Corrosion?
    Figure 1. Corrosion can occur when a painted iron or steel surface is exposed to the environment by a scratch through the paint. A galvanic cell results that may be approximated by the simplified cell schematic Fe(s) | Fe2+(aq) ||O2(aq), H2O(l) | Fe(s). Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e What is Corrosion? (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Corrosion is usually defined as the degradation … Continue reading What is Corrosion?
  • Operant Conditioning
    Operant Conditioning (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Operant conditioning is when organisms learn to associate a behavior and its consequence (Table 1). A pleasant consequence makes that behavior more likely to be repeated in the future. For example, Spirit, a dolphin at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, does a flip in the air when her trainer blows a whistle. … Continue reading Operant Conditioning
  • Research Highlights: SRT1720 Experimental Drug Inhibits Bladder Cancer Development
    SRT1720 Experimental Drug Inhibits Bladder Cancer Development September 4, 2021 Bladder cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the United States.[2] The most common clinical presentation of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine.[2] Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer.[3] New therapeutic targets and drugs for bladder cancer are needed … Continue reading Research Highlights: SRT1720 Experimental Drug Inhibits Bladder Cancer Development
  • Gambling and the Brain
    Gambling and the Brain (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Skinner (1953) stated, “If the gambling establishment cannot persuade a patron to turn over money with no return, it may achieve the same effect by returning part of the patron’s money on a variable-ratio schedule” (p. 397). Skinner uses gambling as an example of the power of the variable-ratio reinforcement … Continue reading Gambling and the Brain
  • Research Highlights: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Evaluation
    BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Evaluation August 29, 2021 Trials have shown that mRNA-based vaccines against the COVID-19 virus had a good safety profile. However, some trials were subject to size and patient-diversity limitations. The safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with respect to a broad range of possible adverse events needs to be evaluated. BNT162b2 is … Continue reading Research Highlights: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Evaluation
  • What are Learning Disabilities?
    What are Learning Disabilities? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Learning disabilities are cognitive disorders that affect different areas of cognition, particularly language or reading. It should be pointed out that learning disabilities are not the same thing as intellectual disabilities. Learning disabilities are considered specific neurological impairments rather than global intellectual or developmental disabilities. A person with a language … Continue reading What are Learning Disabilities?
  • Adulthood Cognitive Development
    Adulthood Cognitive Development (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Because we spend so many years in adulthood (more than any other stage), cognitive changes are numerous. In fact, research suggests that adult cognitive development is a complex, ever-changing process that may be even more active than cognitive development in infancy and early childhood (Fischer, Yan, & Stewart, 2003). Unlike our … Continue reading Adulthood Cognitive Development
  • Levels of Consciousness
    Levels of Consciousness (OpenStax Psychology 2e) To explain the concept of conscious versus unconscious experience, Freud compared the mind to an iceberg (Figure 1). He said that only about one-tenth of our mind is conscious, and the rest of our mind is unconscious. Our unconscious refers to that mental activity of which we are unaware and are unable to … Continue reading Levels of Consciousness
  • The Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells
    The Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells Leukocytes, erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes are all derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In adults, hematopoietic stem cells originate in the bone marrow mainly in the sternum, pelvis, and femur. Hematopoietic stem cells transform into myeloid progenitor cells which are the precursors of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors. Granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are colony-forming … Continue reading The Life Cycle of Dendritic Cells
  • Obesity
    Obesity (OpenStax Psychology 2e) When someone weighs more than what is generally accepted as healthy for a given height, they are considered overweight or obese. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an adult with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. An adult with a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese (Centers for … Continue reading Obesity
  • Image: Mosquito Foot Under Electron Microscope
    Stephen Gschmeissner is an electron microscopist from the United Kingdom who captured this micrograph of a mosquito foot. The image shows a claw, pulvillar pad with adhesive hairs, and scales. Source: https://www.cbc.ca/news/multimedia/royal-photographic-society-unveils-top-science-photos-from-around-the-world-1.4259059
  • Research Highlights: Scientists Discovered Low Genetic Diversity Among Modern Rhinoceroses
    Scientists Discovered Low Genetic Diversity Among Modern Rhinoceroses August 25, 2021 The relationships among rhinoceros species and the time they diverged have been a question by evolutionary biologists. Rhinoceroses were once a diverse group of animals. There are only five species in the family of modern rhinoceros which are highly endangered and priorities for conservation. Biologists had … Continue reading Research Highlights: Scientists Discovered Low Genetic Diversity Among Modern Rhinoceroses
  • Why Measure Intelligence?
    Why Measure Intelligence? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) The value of IQ testing is most evident in educational or clinical settings. Children who seem to be experiencing learning difficulties or severe behavioral problems can be tested to ascertain whether the child’s difficulties can be partly attributed to an IQ score that is significantly different from the mean for her … Continue reading Why Measure Intelligence?
  • Long-term Memory
    Long-term Memory (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Long-term memory (LTM) is the continuous storage of information. Unlike short-term memory, long-term memory storage capacity is believed to be unlimited. It encompasses all the things you can remember that happened more than just a few minutes ago. One cannot really consider long-term memory without thinking about the way it is organized. Really … Continue reading Long-term Memory
  • Memory-Enhancing Strategies
    Memory-Enhancing Strategies (OpenStax Psychology 2e) What are some everyday ways we can improve our memory, including recall? To help make sure information goes from short-term memory to long-term memory, you can use memory-enhancing strategies. One strategy is rehearsal, or the conscious repetition of information to be remembered (Craik & Watkins, 1973). Think about how you learned your multiplication tables … Continue reading Memory-Enhancing Strategies
  • How to Study Effectively?
    How to Study Effectively (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Based on the information presented in this chapter, here are some strategies and suggestions to help you hone your study techniques (Figure 1). The key with any of these strategies is to figure out what works best for you. Use elaborative rehearsal: In a famous article, Fergus Craik and Robert … Continue reading How to Study Effectively?
  • Eating Disorders
    Eating Disorders (OpenStax Psychology 2e) While nearly two out of three US adults struggle with issues related to being overweight, a smaller, but significant, portion of the population has eating disorders that typically result in being normal weight or underweight. Often, these individuals are fearful of gaining weight. Individuals who suffer from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa … Continue reading Eating Disorders
  • Memory Errors
    Memory Errors (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Psychologist Daniel Schacter (2001), a well-known memory researcher, offers seven ways our memories fail us. He calls them the seven sins of memory and categorizes them into three groups: forgetting, distortion, and intrusion (Table 1).Schacter’s Seven Sins of Memory Sin Type Description Example Transience Forgetting Accessibility of memory decreases over time Forget … Continue reading Memory Errors
  • Medical Marijuana
    Medical Marijuana (OpenStax Psychology 2e) The decade from 2010–2019 brought many changes in laws regarding marijuana. While the possession and use of marijuana remain illegal in many states, it is now legal to possess limited quantities of marijuana for recreational use in eleven states: Alaska, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington. Medical … Continue reading Medical Marijuana
  • Mechanisms of Intestine for Protection Against Pathogens
    Mechanisms of Intestine for Protection Against Pathogens Macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells express pattern recognition receptors that detect potential pathogens in the intestines. These receptors bind to peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids that are common components of viruses, fungi, bacteria, and parasites. One of these receptors is called Toll-like receptors or TLR which are found at … Continue reading Mechanisms of Intestine for Protection Against Pathogens
  • Research Highlights: Scientists Discovered Thick-Shelled Turtle Egg with Embryonic Remains from Cretaceous Period
    Scientists Discovered Thick-Shelled Turtle Egg with Embryonic Remains from Cretaceous Period August 8, 2021 Fossil record lacks specimens about turtle eggs containing embryos. Researchers provide the first description and taxonomy information of an egg with a preserved fossilized embryonic turtle. The fossil was discovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Henan Province in China. The specimen … Continue reading Research Highlights: Scientists Discovered Thick-Shelled Turtle Egg with Embryonic Remains from Cretaceous Period
  • What Is Learning?
    What Is Learning? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Birds build nests and migrate as winter approaches. Infants suckle at their mother’s breast. Dogs shake water off wet fur. Salmon swim upstream to spawn, and spiders spin intricate webs. What do these seemingly unrelated behaviors have in common? They all are unlearned behaviors. Both instincts and reflexes are innate (unlearned) behaviors that … Continue reading What Is Learning?
  • Prenatal Influence
    Prenatal Influence (OpenStax Psychology 2e) During each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors can affect development. The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life. It is important that the mother takes good care of herself and receives prenatal care, which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the … Continue reading Prenatal Influence
  • Retrograde Amnesia
    Retrograde Amnesia (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Retrograde amnesia is the loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the trauma. People with retrograde amnesia cannot remember some or even all of their past. They have difficulty remembering episodic memories. What if you woke up in the hospital one day and there were people surrounding your bed claiming to … Continue reading Retrograde Amnesia
  • The Misinformation Effect
    The Misinformation Effect (OpenStax Psychology 2e) Cognitive psychologist Elizabeth Loftus has conducted extensive research on memory. She has studied false memories as well as recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. Loftus also developed the misinformation effect paradigm, which holds that after exposure to additional and possibly inaccurate information, a person may misremember the original event. According to Loftus, … Continue reading The Misinformation Effect
  • Research Highlights: Scientists Discovered Why Sunflower Faces Eastward
    Scientists Discovered Why Sunflower Faces Eastward August 8, 2021 Heliotropism is a form of tropism in which the motion of plant parts, such as the flower, is influenced by the direction of the Sun. During the day, the shoot apex of a common sunflower continuously reposition following the sun’s relative position making the developing heads track from … Continue reading Research Highlights: Scientists Discovered Why Sunflower Faces Eastward
  • Sexual Orientation
    What does sexual orientation means? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) A person’s sexual orientation is their emotional and erotic attraction toward another individual (Figure 1). While the majority of people identify as heterosexual, there is a sizable population of people within the United States who identify as homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, asexual, or other non-hetero sexualities. (Bisexual people are attracted … Continue reading Sexual Orientation