Prenatal Influence (OpenStax Psychology 2e)
During each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors can affect development. The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life. It is important that the mother takes good care of herself and receives prenatal care, which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus (Figure 1). According to the National Institutes of Health ([NIH], 2013), routine prenatal care is important because it can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy. In fact, women who are trying to become pregnant or who may become pregnant should discuss pregnancy planning with their doctor. They may be advised, for example, to take a vitamin containing folic acid, which helps prevent certain birth defects, or to monitor aspects of their diet or exercise routines.
When the zygote attaches to the wall of the mother’s uterus, the placenta is formed. The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. Most everything the mother ingests, including food, liquid, and even medication, travels through the placenta to the fetus, hence the common phrase “eating for two.” Anything the mother is exposed to in the environment affects the fetus; if the mother is exposed to something harmful, the child can show life-long effects.
A teratogen is any environmental agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus. There are different types of teratogens. Alcohol and most drugs cross the placenta and affect the fetus. Alcohol is not safe to drink in any amount during pregnancy. Alcohol use during pregnancy has been found to be the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities in children in the United States (Maier & West, 2001). Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with life-long consequences for the child ranging in severity from minor to major (Table 1). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a collection of birth defects associated with heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Physically, children with FASD may have a small head size and abnormal facial features. Cognitively, these children may have poor judgment, poor impulse control, higher rates of ADHD, learning issues, and lower IQ scores. These developmental problems and delays persist into adulthood (Streissguth et al., 2004). Based on studies conducted on animals, it also has been suggested that a mother’s alcohol consumption during pregnancy may predispose her child to like alcohol (Youngentob et al., 2007).
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Facial Features
|Facial Feature||Potential Effect of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome|
|Head size||Below-average head circumference|
|Eyes||Smaller than average eye opening, skin folds at corners of eyes|
|Nose||Low nasal bridge, short nose|
|Midface||Smaller than average midface size|
|Lip and philtrum||Thin upper lip, indistinct philtrum|
Smoking is also considered a teratogen because nicotine travels through the placenta to the fetus. When the mother smokes, the developing baby experiences a reduction in blood oxygen levels. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), smoking while pregnant can result in premature birth, low-birth-weight infants, stillbirth, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, almost all prescription medicines, and most over-the counter medications are also considered teratogens. Babies born with a heroin addiction need heroin just like an adult addict. The child will need to be gradually weaned from the heroin under medical supervision; otherwise, the child could have seizures and die. Other teratogens include radiation, viruses such as HIV and herpes, and rubella (German measles). Women in the United States are much less likely to be afflicted with rubella because most women received childhood immunizations or vaccinations that protect the body from disease.
Each organ of the fetus develops during a specific period in the pregnancy, called the critical or sensitive period. For example, research with primate models of FASD has demonstrated that the time during which a developing fetus is exposed to alcohol can dramatically affect the appearance of facial characteristics associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. Specifically, this research suggests that alcohol exposure that is limited to day 19 or 20 of gestation can lead to significant facial abnormalities in the offspring (Ashley, Magnuson, Omnell, & Clarren, 1999). Given regions of the brain also show sensitive periods during which they are most susceptible to the teratogenic effects of alcohol (Tran & Kelly, 2003).
Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. OpenStax. Houston, Texas. Accessed for free at https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology-2e
Research Article: Prenatal Influences on Size, Velocity and Tempo of Infant Growth: Findings from Three Contemporary Cohorts
Date Published: February 27, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Costanza Pizzi, Tim J. Cole, Lorenzo Richiardi, Isabel dos-Santos-Silva, Camila Corvalan, Bianca De Stavola, Guoying Wang. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090291 Abstract: Studying prenatal influences of early life growth is relevant to life-course epidemiology as some of its features have been linked to the onset of later diseases. … Continue reading
Research Article: Influence of prenatal hypoxia and postnatal hyperoxia on morphologic lung maturation in mice
Date Published: April 20, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Andreas Schmiedl, Torge Roolfs, Erol Tutdibi, Ludwig Gortner, Dominik Monz, Michael Koval. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175804 Abstract: Oxygen supply as a lifesaving intervention is frequently used to treat preterm infants suffering additionally from possible prenatal or perinatal pathogen features. The impact of oxygen and/or physical lung injury … Continue reading
Research Article: Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory
Date Published: July 17, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Catherine Fiset, France M. Rioux, Marc E. Surette, Sylvain Fiset, Jonghan Kim. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133168 Abstract: The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency-induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. … Continue reading
Research Article: Influence of Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Newborn Sex on Global Methylation of Cord Blood DNA
Date Published: May 25, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): J. Richard Pilsner, Megan N. Hall, Xinhua Liu, Vesna Ilievski, Vesna Slavkovich, Diane Levy, Pam Factor-Litvak, Mahammad Yunus, Mahfuzar Rahman, Joseph H. Graziano, Mary V. Gamble, Cees Oudejans. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037147 Abstract: An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As) exposure may influence the trajectory … Continue reading