Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)
Nickel-cadmium, or NiCd, batteries (Figure 1) consist of a nickel-plated cathode, cadmium-plated anode, and a potassium hydroxide electrode. The positive and negative plates, which are prevented from shorting by the separator, are rolled together and put into the case. This is a “jelly-roll” design and allows the NiCd cell to deliver much more current than a similar-sized alkaline battery. The reactions are
When properly treated, a NiCd battery can be recharged about 1000 times. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal so NiCd batteries should never be ruptured or incinerated, and they should be disposed of in accordance with relevant toxic waste guidelines.
Lithium ion batteries (Figure 2) are among the most popular rechargeable batteries and are used in many portable electronic devices. The reactions are
The variable stoichiometry of the cell reaction leads to variation in cell voltages, but for typical conditions, x is usually no more than 0.5 and the cell voltage is approximately 3.7 V. Lithium batteries are popular because they can provide a large amount current, are lighter than comparable batteries of other types, produce a nearly constant voltage as they discharge, and only slowly lose their charge when stored.
The lead acid battery (Figure 3) is the type of secondary battery commonly used in automobiles. It is inexpensive and capable of producing the high current required by automobile starter motors. The reactions for a lead acid battery are
Each cell produces 2 V, so six cells are connected in series to produce a 12-V car battery. Lead acid batteries are heavy and contain a caustic liquid electrolyte, H2SO4(aq), but are often still the battery of choice because of their high current density. Since these batteries contain a significant amount of lead, they must always be disposed of properly.
Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e
Date Published: January 28, 2019 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Chao Chen, Tingting Yu, Meng Yang, Xiangyu Zhao, Xiaodong Shen. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201802130 Abstract: The chloride ion battery has been developed as one of the alternative battery chemistries beyond lithium ion, toward abundant material resources and high energy density. Its application, however, is limited by … Continue reading
Research Article: High Performance Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Batteries: A Self‐Catalyzed Strategy toward Facile Synthesis
Date Published: August 02, 2017 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Yanyan Cui, Xinmiao Liang, Jingchao Chai, Zili Cui, Qinglei Wang, Weisheng He, Xiaochen Liu, Zhihong Liu, Guanglei Cui, Jiwen Feng. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201700174 Abstract: It is urgent to seek high performance solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) via a facile chemistry and simple process. The lithium salts … Continue reading
Research Article: Pure Single‐Crystalline Na1.1V3O7.9 Nanobelts as Superior Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium‐Ion Batteries
Date Published: February 17, 2015 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Shuang Yuan, Yong‐Bing Liu, Dan Xu, De‐Long Ma, Sai Wang, Xiao‐Hong Yang, Zhan‐Yi Cao, Xin‐Bo Zhang. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201400018 Abstract: Pure single‐crystalline Na1.1V3O7.9 nanobelts are successfully synthesized for the first time via a facile yet effective strategy. When used as cathode materials for Na‐ion batteries, … Continue reading
Research Article: Poly(benzoquinonyl sulfide) as a High‐Energy Organic Cathode for Rechargeable Li and Na Batteries
Date Published: June 08, 2015 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Zhiping Song, Yumin Qian, Tao Zhang, Minoru Otani, Haoshen Zhou. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201500124 Abstract: In concern of resource sustainability and environmental friendliness, organic electrode materials for rechargeable batteries have attracted increasing attentions in recent years. However, for many researchers, the primary impression on organic cathode … Continue reading