Date Published: January 25, 2010
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Dionicia Gamboa, Mei-Fong Ho, Jorge Bendezu, Katherine Torres, Peter L. Chiodini, John W. Barnwell, Sandra Incardona, Mark Perkins, David Bell, James McCarthy, Qin Cheng, Anders Bjorkman. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008091
Abstract: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer significant potential to improve the diagnosis of malaria, and are playing an increasing role in malaria case management, control and elimination. Peru, along with other South American countries, is moving to introduce malaria RDTs as components of malaria control programmes supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and malaria. The selection of the most suitable malaria RDTs is critical to the success of the programmes.
Partial Text: Despite several decades of control efforts malaria remains a major infectious disease, causing at least 250 million infections and nearly 1 million deaths per year . The recent significant reductions in prevalence documented in some settings  through effective use of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT), insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying has given cause for optimism and placed malaria eradication back on the global health agenda. The ability to accurately and rapidly diagnose malaria infection in different settings is essential to the success of malaria control and elimination . Accurate diagnosis facilitates appropriate and prompt treatment of febrile illness, reduces drug misuse, and minimises the risk of the development of drug resistance.
Laboratory lines of P. falciparum that lack pfhrp2 or pfhrp3 or both genes have been reported following adaptation to and long term growth under in vitro culture conditions –. However, this is the first report of clinical isolates of parasites taken directly from infected human subjects in endemic areas lacking these genes. As part of the WHO-FIND malaria RDT evaluation program we have examined pfhrp2 sequence variation of over 500 clinical parasite samples collected from many different malaria endemic areas in Africa, South East Asia, West Pacific and South America ( and Baker et al unpublished) and have not encountered P. falciparum samples lacking pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 elsewhere. In Peru, we identified, for the first time, not only parasites from clinical patients lacking these hrp genes but also a wide spread pattern of parasites lacking these genes in the Peruvian Amazon with an overall frequency of 41% and 70% of parasites without pfhrp2 and pfhrp3, respectively and 21.6% for double deletions.