Date Published: March 30, 2011
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): James D. Gardiner, Grigorios Dimitriadis, Jonathan R. Codd, Robert L. Nudds, Brock Fenton. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018214
Abstract: Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control.
Partial Text: In recent years it has become established that bird tails have important effects upon their flight. For example, bird tails are known to produce lift during flight , . Bird tails also appear to reduce body drag, by acting as a splitter plate  that reduces flow separation behind the body, essentially making the body more streamlined . Furthermore, sufficient flight stability is essential for all flying animals and bird tails are thought to be a key component for overall flight stability , , . Bird tails are also thought to be important for flight control, particularly during take-off and landing when the tail is fanned out and the angle of attack increased, augmenting lift production, improving manoeuvrability and possibly reducing wing stall , .
During wind tunnel testing little aero-elastic deformation of the model’s latex wing membranes or wing struts was observed. There was also no obvious fluttering of the trailing edge of the membrane. The only deformation of the latex membrane observed was the local increase in wing camber (leg-induced wing camber) due to the repositioning of the legs (Figure 1C), previously discussed in the methods.
Changes in leg angle had a significant impact on the aerodynamic performance of the bat model (Figure 3). These leg angle induced aerodynamic effects are likely to be due to two main factors; increased leg-induced wing camber (i.e. locally increased camber and angle of attack of the inner wing surface of the model) and an increase in the angle of attack of the tail membrane. Both have a different impact on the bat model’s aerodynamics and therefore different implications for P. auritus flight performance.