Date Published: January 7, 2019
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Author(s): Liang Huang, Ning Sun, Litong Ban, Yu Wang, Hongpeng Yang.
Extracellular enzymes play an important role in the growth and development of edible fungi. Extracellular enzyme activities have also become an important object of measurement. In this study, Agaricus brunnescens Peck, Coprinus comatus, and Pleurotus ostreatus were compared in terms of their enzyme production in liquid-and solid-state fermentation. Differences in the ability of various types of edible fungi to utilize biomass raw materials were analyzed by monitoring the fiber degradation rate during crop straw degradation, and changes in their cellulolytic enzyme systems during growth and metabolism were discussed. This study provided insights into the changes in the lignocellulose degradation ability of edible fungi during their growth and facilitated the discovery of new approaches to accelerate their growth in culture.
Edible fungi have been appreciated for their flavor and texture and recognized as a nutritious food and important source of bioactive compounds with medicinal value (Cheung et al. 2003). Certain fungal species have been used for their medicinal properties for over 2000 years, and their bioactive compounds that act as immunomodulatory and exhibit anticancer activities have been isolated (Sadler 2010). Since the 1960s, studies have explored the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of edible fungi and confirmed the special biological effects and medicinal values of edible fungi at a molecular level. For example, polysaccharides and proteoglycans in edible fungi play important roles in biological activities (Laatsch 1992; Mei and Zhang 2007; Ye et al. 2011).
Crop straw is a rich renewable resource, but it causes environmental pollution that is considered a major problem in modern agriculture (Novaes et al. 2010; Sanderson 2011). Lignocellulose, which is abundant in crop straw, is the main component limiting straw degradation (Ćilerdžić et al. 2017). Laccase and xylanase are the main components of lignocellulase. Microbial strains, such as fungi, can effectively degrade lignocellulose by secreting lignocellulosin-degrading enzymes through the oxidative cleavage of chemical bonds (Liew et al. 2011; Yang et al. 2011; Zeng et al. 2006). Edible fungi have become a new field in the development of natural drug resources because of their special biological effects and medicinal values (Chihara et al. 1970; Petrovai and Diana 1970). Therefore, determining the appropriate culture conditions for edible fungi can alleviate the difficulty in degrading lignocellulose and promote the growth of edible fungi.