Research Article: Abnormalities of the external genitalia and groins among primary school boys in Bida, Nigeria

Date Published: December , 2017

Publisher: Makerere Medical School

Author(s): Adedeji O Adekanye, Samuel A Adefemi, Kayode A Onawola, John A James, Ibrahim T Adeleke, Mark Francis, Ezekiel U Sheshi, Moses E Atakere, Abdullahi D Jibril.

http://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i4.20

Abstract

Abnormalities of the male external genitalia and groin, a set of lesions which may be congenital or acquired, are rather obscured to many kids and their parents and Nigerian health care system has no formal program to detect them.

To identify and determine the prevalence of abnormalities of external genitalia and groin among primary school boys in Bida, Nigeria.

This was a cross-sectional study of primary school male pupils in Bida. A detailed clinical examination of the external genitalia and groin was performed on them.

Abnormalities were detected in 240 (36.20%) of the 663 boys, with 35 (5.28%) having more than one abnormality. The three most prevalent abnormalities were penile chordee (37, 5.58%), excessive removal of penile skin (37, 5.58%) and retractile testis (34, 5.13%). The prevalence of complications of circumcision was 15.40% and included excessive residual foreskin, excessive removal of skin, skin bridges and meatal stenosis. Undescended testes were seen in 6 (0.90%) boys, with median age of 9 years and 2 were bilateral. Also, micropenis was detected in 27 (4.07%) of the pupils.

Inguino-penoscrotal abnormalities are common in our community (36.20%). Screening of pre-school and school children to detect them should be introduced into the school health programs in Nigeria.

Partial Text

Abnormalities of the male external genitalia and groins are a set of lesions which may be congenital or acquired but are rather obscured to many kids and their parents. This is particularly so where the parents may not be certain of what a normal external genitalia and groin should look like, or out of sheer negligence. The absence of any immediate functional derangement usually reinforces such indifference to the presence of the abnormalities. Late presentation may then be inevitable, which may be in form of life-threatening complications such as strangulated hernia or grave sequelae such as infertility, which is not uncommon in the practice of the lead author (a Urologist). The optimal time for the treatment of most of these surgically correctable lesions is infancy and childhood.

This was a cross-sectional study carried out among male primary school pupils in Bida, North Central Nigeria. By systematic random sampling, 10 were selected out of the 75 primary schools in Bida.

Most of the boys (90 %) were ≤13years, with a mean age of 9.4 ± 3.0 years. Abnormalities were detected in 240 (36.20%) of the 663 boys, with 35 (5.28%) having more than one abnormality. The three most prevalent abnormalities were penile chordee (37, 5.58%), excessive removal of penile skin (37, 5.58%) and retractile testis (34, 5.13%) [Table 1].

Inguinoscrotal and penile anomalies, congenital or acquired, are among the common lesions in children and some have no gross functional or morphological import on the patient. But many of them can be corrected by surgical operation at the earliest possible period, preferably when less than 2–3 years of age. This will forestall complications that can be fatal or grave and irreversible. In the practice of the lead author, a number of adult male patients have presented at the clinic with infertility and examination revealed bilateral undescended testis, which as expected were atrophic and located in the groin or abdomen.

 

Source:

http://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i4.20

 

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