Research Article: Aluminum Chloride‐Graphite Batteries with Flexible Current Collectors Prepared from Earth‐Abundant Elements

Date Published: January 22, 2018

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Author(s): Shutao Wang, Kostiantyn V. Kravchyk, Alejandro N. Filippin, Ulrich Müller, Ayodhya N. Tiwari, Stephan Buecheler, Maryna I. Bodnarchuk, Maksym V. Kovalenko.


In the search for low‐cost and large‐scale stationary storage of electricity, nonaqueous aluminum chloride‐graphite batteries (AlCl3‐GBs) have received much attention due to the high natural abundances of their primary constituents, facile manufacturing, and high energy densities. Much research has focused on the judicious selection of graphite cathode materials, leading to the most notable recent advances in the performance of AlCl3‐GBs. However, the major obstacle to commercializing this technology is the lack of oxidatively stable, inexpensive current collectors that can operate in chloroaluminate ionic liquids and are composed of earth‐abundant elements. This study presents the use of titanium nitride (TiN) as a compelling material for this purpose. Flexible current collectors can be fabricated by coating TiN on stainless steel or flexible polyimide substrates by low‐cost, rapid, scalable methods such as magnetron sputtering. When these current collectors are used in AlCl3‐GB coin or pouch cells, stable cathodic operation is observed at voltages of up to 2.5 V versus Al3+/Al. Furthermore, these batteries have a high coulombic efficiency of 99.5%, power density of 4500 W kg−1, and cyclability of at least 500 cycles.

Partial Text

Chemicals and Battery Components: [EMIM]Cl (99%, IoLiTec), AlCl3 (99%, granules, Acros), Al foil (MTI Corporation), stainless steel (316S, Hohsen), a polyimide (Kapton), soda lime glass, W plates (MTI Corporation), GC plates (Goodfellow), Cr targets (99.95%, Umicore), Ti targets (99.95%, Umicore), a glass microfiber separator (GF/D, Cat. No. 1823‐257, Whatman), a polyvinylidene fluoride binder (PVDF, Aldrich), and N‐methyl‐2‐pyrrolidone (NMP, Fischer) were used as received.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.




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