Date Published: May 8, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Kristofer Lasko, Krishna Prasad Vadrevu, Thanh Thi Nhat Nguyen, Benjamin Poulter.
Air pollution is one of the major environmental concerns in Vietnam. In this study, we assess the current status of air pollution over Hanoi, Vietnam using multiple different satellite datasets and weather information, and assess the potential to capture rice residue burning emissions with satellite data in a cloud-covered region. We used a timeseries of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI) satellite data to characterize absorbing aerosols related to biomass burning. We also tested a timeseries of 3-hourly MERRA-2 reanalysis Black Carbon (BC) concentration data for 5 years from 2012–2016 and explored pollution trends over time. We then used MODIS active fires, and synoptic wind patterns to attribute variability in Hanoi pollution to different sources. Because Hanoi is within the Red River Delta where rice residue burning is prominent, we explored trends to see if the residue burning signal is evident in the UVAI or BC data. Further, as the region experiences monsoon-influenced rainfall patterns, we adjusted the BC data based on daily rainfall amounts. Results indicated forest biomass burning from Northwest Vietnam and Laos impacts Hanoi air quality during the peak UVAI months of March and April. Whereas, during local rice residue burning months of June and October, no increase in UVAI is observed, with slight BC increase in October only. During the peak BC months of December and January, wind patterns indicated pollutant transport from southern China megacity areas. Results also indicated severe pollution episodes during December 2013 and January 2014. We observed significantly higher BC concentrations during nighttime than daytime with peaks generally between 2130 and 0030 local time. Our results highlight the need for better air pollution monitoring systems to capture episodic pollution events and their surface-level impacts, such as rice residue burning in cloud-prone regions in general and Hanoi, Vietnam in particular.
Biomass burning, industries, transportation, economic growth, and power production in Southeast Asia have been increasing in recent times, resulting in air pollution and air quality degradation issues throughout Southeast Asia [1–3]. Emissions from agricultural rice residue burning, forest biomass burning as well as industrial sources, have all been linked to long and medium range transport of air pollution in different regions of the world. For example, agricultural residue burning in the Indo-Ganges region resulting in pollutant deposition in the Himalayas with positive radiative forcing [4–5], arctic ice loss attributed to surface albedo change from pollutant deposition from agricultural fires in Russia , air quality degradation in Japan attributed to fires in Russia , cold season transport of industrial pollutants from China to Korea , degraded air quality in Singapore and Malaysia due to peat and palm plantation fires in Indonesia , as well as biomass burning pollution impacts in Thailand due to local and regional fires from Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia [5, 10–14].
Hanoi, Vietnam has experienced routinely degraded air quality over the past several decades due to urban expansion and development, as well as emissions from rice residue biomass burning especially during June and October . While emissions from rice residue burning have been quantified, it’s unknown how much impact is measured through the satellite air pollution datasets. We integrated meteorological factors such as wind speed, direction, and precipitation combined with MODIS active fire data to explore BC trends and levels. We also assessed the potential of UVAI for monitoring absorbing aerosols from biomass burning, such as rice residue burning in Hanoi, which is a heavily cloud-covered region. Moreover, we compare average monthly MODIS cloud fractions over the region, as well as the average monthly number of clear sky observations of OMI UVAI per month.
Previous studies have demonstrated that even limited duration exposure to polluted air such as PM2.5 or one of its major constituents of BC, may lead to serious health concerns and even premature death in at-risk populations such as the elderly . One such example in Beijing estimated 5,100 people died prematurely due to air pollution exposure from 2001–2012 . Therefore, it is of significant importance to address and properly quantify some of the air quality issues over Hanoi, such as from rice residue biomass burning events in June and October. However, it is also important to quantify air pollution for much of the Asian region due to long-range transport from different emission sources. These reasons highlight the need to mitigate air pollution emissions throughout the Asian region.
Our study explored the current status of air pollution and pollution monitoring over Hanoi, Vietnam and the surrounding region, and specifically, to determine if the satellite data can capture the air pollution impact from rice residue biomass burning events documented to occur in the Red River Delta where Hanoi is located. Our results showed the Red River Delta and Hanoi experience the highest cloud coverage of the continental Southeast Asian region, and it was found to hinder optical satellite observations of air pollution, such as from OMI UVAI averaging only a few clear observations per month. Therefore, it is difficult to monitor air pollution in the study area and we did not find significant air pollution impacts over Hanoi attributable to the known rice residue burning events. Further improved methodologies or higher resolution satellite constellations, and ground-based datasets are needed for improved air pollution assessments. We also used MERRA-2 reanalysis data which found the highest BC levels during December, January, and October during the dry season with some pollution attributed to long range transport from the North during this time. We also found biomass burning emissions impact based on UVAI levels with transport from Laos and NW Vietnam during March and April based on synoptic wind patterns. Results from both UVAI and BC did not indicate elevated pollution levels from rice residue burning during June, however, slightly elevated levels in October were often observed. Findings suggest that improved datasets and observations are necessary for monitoring rice residue burning emissions.