Date Published: April 17, 2007
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Orhan Aktas, Martin Bluthner, Oliver Bauer, Heribert Appelhans, Diego Franciotta, Roberto Bergamaschi, Edward Littleton, Jacqueline Palace, Hans-Peter Seelig, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Angela Vincent, Frauke Zipp, Hans Lassmann
Abstract: BackgroundNeuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of putative autoimmune aetiology. Early discrimination between multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO is important, as optimum treatment for both diseases may differ considerably. Recently, using indirect immunofluorescence analysis, a new serum autoantibody (NMO-IgG) has been detected in NMO patients. The binding sites of this autoantibody were reported to colocalize with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. Thus we hypothesized that AQP4 antibodies in fact characterize NMO patients.Methods and FindingsBased on these observations we cloned human water channel AQP4, expressed the protein in a eukaryotic transcription/translation system, and employed the recombinant AQP4 to establish a new radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Indeed, application of this RIPA showed that antibodies against AQP4 exist in the majority of patients with NMO (n = 37; 21 positive) as well as in patients with isolated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (n = 6; six positive), corresponding to a sensitivity of 62.8% and a specificity of 98.3%. By contrast, AQP4 antibodies were virtually absent in 291 other participants, which included patients with MS (n = 144; four positive), patients with other inflammatory and noninflammatory neurological diseases (n = 73; one positive), patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 45; 0 positive), and healthy participants (n = 29; 0 positive).ConclusionsIn the largest series reported so far to our knowledge, we quantified AQP4 antibodies in patients with NMO versus various other diseases, and showed that the aquaporin 4 water channel is a target antigen in a majority of patients with NMO. The newly developed assay represents a highly specific, observer-independent, and easily reproducible detection method facilitating clinically relevant discrimination between NMO, MS, and other inflammatory diseases.
Partial Text: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic syndrome) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), mainly affecting the optic nerves and the spinal cord [1–4]. It is still a matter of debate whether NMO represents a disease entity in itself or whether it is a subform of multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, NMO follows a relapsing–remitting course in the majority of cases, but it usually leads to more severe disability with impairment of functional vision and/or loss of ambulation. Early differentiation of NMO from MS and other inflammatory and demyelinating diseases of the CNS—such as vasculitis, neuroborreliosis, paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, or vitamin B12 deficiency—is highly desirable, as treatment options and prognoses differ widely. However, such differentiation may be difficult or even impossible owing to overlap in clinical presentation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings .
This study is, to our knowledge, the first to report on the frequency of autoantibodies recognizing the AQP4 water channel in patients with NMO and to evaluate its specificity when compared to an adequate control group of different patient populations and healthy individuals. Based on the seminal observations of Lennon and colleagues suggesting AQP4 as the target antigen in NMO , we cloned and expressed human AQP4 to establish a quantitative radioimmunoprecipitation assay. This novel approach allows standardized high-throughput analysis. In our series of patients with NMO and related disorders, we show that antibodies to the AQP4 water channel are present in 63% of patients with NMO or at high risk of the disease, but are virtually absent in patients with MS and other inflammatory and noninflammatory neurological diseases (5/217), as well as in patients with rheumatological diseases and in healthy controls (0/74). A methodological limitation here is the moderate interassay variation coefficient in this type of assay, although this can be overcome because of the very low intra-assay variation coefficient and the fact that a high number of samples can be measured simultaneously.