Research Article: Application of a Cloud Model-Set Pair Analysis in Hazard Assessment for Biomass Gasification Stations

Date Published: January 11, 2017

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Fang Yan, Kaili Xu, Yong Deng.

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170012

Abstract

Because a biomass gasification station includes various hazard factors, hazard assessment is needed and significant. In this article, the cloud model (CM) is employed to improve set pair analysis (SPA), and a novel hazard assessment method for a biomass gasification station is proposed based on the cloud model-set pair analysis (CM-SPA). In this method, cloud weight is proposed to be the weight of index. In contrast to the index weight of other methods, cloud weight is shown by cloud descriptors; hence, the randomness and fuzziness of cloud weight will make it effective to reflect the linguistic variables of experts. Then, the cloud connection degree (CCD) is proposed to replace the connection degree (CD); the calculation algorithm of CCD is also worked out. By utilizing the CCD, the hazard assessment results are shown by some normal clouds, and the normal clouds are reflected by cloud descriptors; meanwhile, the hazard grade is confirmed by analyzing the cloud descriptors. After that, two biomass gasification stations undergo hazard assessment via CM-SPA and AHP based SPA, respectively. The comparison of assessment results illustrates that the CM-SPA is suitable and effective for the hazard assessment of a biomass gasification station and that CM-SPA will make the assessment results more reasonable and scientific.

Partial Text

The energy crisis has confused mankind for several decades, especially in many low- and middle-income countries [1]. To solve this problem, the development of renewable energy is significant. Biomass has tremendous potential in solving future shortages of energy as renewable resources [2], and it has undergone rapid development in recent years [3–5]. Likewise, as a middle-income developing country, biomass energy has also recently undergone rapid development in China [6,7]. Utilization of biomass resources is multifarious, including biodiesel [8], biomass to liquid (BTL, [9]), biomass gasification [10], and so on. However, biomass gasification is considered to be a crucial utilization alternative [11]. In recent years, biomass gasification stations have been constructed and massively put into service in rural areas of China. The agriculture wastes are converted into green energy via biomass gasification. Herein the biomass gas is produced by the burning of agriculture wastes under the condition of insufficient oxygen [12], thus the produced biomass gas contains hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4) which are flammable and explosive while CO is poisonous [13,14]. Because the produced biomass gas and biomass materials are flammable and the biomass gas has explosive and poisonous characteristics, hazard factors exist in biomass gasification stations. As a result, to conduct risk control and safety management for a biomass gasification station, hazard assessment is necessary.

Because various hazardous factors exist in a biomass gasification system, hazard assessment is needed to evaluate the hazard degree of a biomass gasification station. In this study, a novel hazard assessment method was proposed based on CM-SPA. After a study of the method, conclusions were summarized and are listed below.

 

Source:

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170012

 

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