Date Published: March 23, 2018
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Author(s): Bing Song, Jianqiang Ye, Frederick Leo Sossah, Changtian Li, Dan Li, Lingsi Meng, Shuai Xu, Yongping Fu, Yu Li.
Grifola frondosa is an economically important edible and medicinal mushroom usually produced on substrate consisting of sawdust supplemented with wheat bran. Cultivation of G. frondosa on crop straw (corn cob, corn straw, rice straw, and soybean straw) as a substrate was optimized by using the D-optimum method of the simplex-lattice design, and the alternative of crop straw as a substitute for sawdust in the substrate composition was determined by the optimized model. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation existing between the yield and corn cob. The growth cycle was negatively correlated with sawdust, corn cob and soybean straw, with sawdust significantly shortening the growth cycle of G. frondosa. The optimized high-yielding formula included 73.125% corn cob, 1.875% rice straw, 23% wheat bran and 2% light calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (C/N = 48.40). The average yield of the first flush was 134.72 ± 4.24 g/bag, which was increased by 39.97% compared with the control formula. The biological efficiency (BE) was 44.91 ± 1.41%, which was increased by 38.53% compared with the control. Based on the results of this study, corn cob can replace sawdust as one of the main cultivation substrates of G. frondosa.
Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray, named “Maitake” in Japan, is a rare edible and medicinal fungi mainly cultivated in China, Japan and Korea (Park et al. 2015). It has a high nutritional composition with compounds such as polysaccharides, proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and trace elements (Gu et al. 2007; Illana-Esteban 2008; Montoya et al. 2012). It also has a wide range of bioactive compounds (Shin and Lee 2014) which has been reported to have hypoglycaemic effects, anti-cancer properties, antiviral properties, antioxidant effects, immunomodulatory effects, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-cholesterol or cholesterol-lowering effects, as well as the ability to reduce blood pressure and protect the liver (Vetvicka and Vetvickova 2014; Ding et al. 2016; Lin et al. 2016). Due to the unique properties of G. frondosa, it has become a regular healthy food for consumption with a high demand in many countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia and some countries in Europe (Mayell 2001). The commercial profitability of this mushroom has significantly increased, necessitating a rapid expansion in its cultivation in China and other parts of the world.
Interest in G. frondosa production has increased significantly in the last decade due to their nutritional and health-promoting benefits (Vetvicka and Vetvickova 2014; Ding et al. 2016). G. frondosa is traditionally cultivated on forest wood (sawdust) however due to recent efforts in managing forest resources the use of agro-forestry products for its cultivation is not sustainable. Most edible fungi can be cultivated with agro-residues such as crop straws (Barreto et al. 2008; Philippoussis 2009) either by composting or non-composting. However, due to the differences in nutritional requirements, growth specificity, inheritance characteristics and activities of the secreted extracellular enzymes among edible fungi (Montoya et al. 2012; Yang et al. 2013a), differences exist in the utilization capacity of the different crop straws. In this work, we investigated the use of different crop straw (corn cob, soybean straw, rice straw and corn stalk) as alternate substrate to sawdust for cultivating G. frondosa and developed a statistical model for optimizing production and evaluated its effect on yield and growth cycle.