Date Published: May 2, 2018
Author(s): Selamawit Tulu, Tarekegne Tadesse, Addisu Alemayehu Gube.
Majority of acute diarrhoeal diseases are self-limiting and do not require routine treatment. Treatment with empirical antimicrobials is recommended only for dysenteric and invasive bacterial diarrhoea. Irrational use of antibiotics in treatment of acute diarrhoea is common in clinical practice worldwide. This study was carried out to assess the pattern of antibiotic use for acute diarrhoeal diseases in Bishoftu General Hospital, East Shewa Ethiopia.
Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to April 30, 2016. Data were collected retrospectively from patients treated for diarrhoeal diseases from January 2015 to December 2015 using structured questionnaires and entered into SPSS (IBM 20) and descriptive statistics was carried out.
Among the 303 patients, 51.2% were males and 48.8% were females. Of them, 62% were children under five years. Two hundred sixty three (86.8%) patients received eight different types of antibiotics and cotrimoxazole (178 patients, 58.7%) was the most prescribed antibiotics, followed by ciprofloxacin (33, 10.9%) and amoxicillin (14, 4.6%). Based on the presence of blood in stools, 14.5% of cases were of invasive bacterial type. According to the recommendations of WHO, the rate of overuse of antibiotics was 72.3%.
This study revealed that there was high overuse of antibiotics for both adults and children under five with acute diarrhoea in Bishoftu General Hospital. And Cotrimoxazole was the most prescribed antibiotic.
An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria . Every week a new antibiotic started to be propelled into the market leaving no time for doctors to fully get familiar with new products while, at the same time, providing ample chances to microorganisms to develop different means of resistance to guarantee their survival . Inappropriate antibiotic use is defined as a use that minimizes therapeutic impacts while it maximizes toxicity and the development of resistance. In Ethiopia, there are indications on the misuse of antibiotics by health-care providers, unskilled practitioners, and drug consumers. These coupled with rapid spread of resistant bacteria and inadequate surveillance contributed to the problem [3, 4].
This institution-based cross sectional study has investigated the pattern of antibiotic use for acute diarrhoeal diseases in Bishoftu General Hospital, East Shewa, Ethiopia.
This study revealed that there was high overuse of antibiotics for both adults and children under five years with acute diarrhoea in Bishoftu General Hospital. And cotrimoxazole was the most prescribed antibiotic.