Date Published: October 4, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Yaohua Tian, Hui Liu, Zuolin Zhao, Xiao Xiang, Man Li, Juan Juan, Jing Song, Yaying Cao, Xiaowen Wang, Libo Chen, Chen Wei, Yonghua Hu, Pei Gao, Jonathan A. Patz
Abstract: BackgroundEvidence of the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on the risk of ischemic stroke in low- and middle-income countries is limited and inconsistent. We aimed to examine the associations between air pollution and daily hospital admissions for ischemic stroke in China.Methods and findingsWe identified hospital admissions for ischemic stroke in 2014–2016 from the national database covering up to 0.28 billion people who received Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) in China. We examined the associations between air pollution and daily ischemic stroke admission using a two-stage method. Poisson time-series regression models were firstly fitted to estimate the effects of air pollution in each city. Random-effects meta-analyses were then conducted to combine the estimates. Meta-regression models were applied to explore potential effect modifiers. More than 2 million hospital admissions for ischemic stroke were identified in 172 cities in China. In single-pollutant models, increases of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) and 1 mg/m3 in carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were associated with 0.34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20%–0.48%), 1.37% (1.05%–1.70%), 1.82% (1.45%–2.19%), 0.01% (−0.14%–0.16%), and 3.24% (2.05%–4.43%) increases in hospital admissions for ischemic stroke on the same day, respectively. SO2 and NO2 associations remained significant in two-pollutant models, but not PM2.5 and CO associations. The effect estimates were greater in cities with lower air pollutant levels and higher air temperatures, as well as in elderly subgroups. The main limitation of the present study was the unavailability of data on individual exposure to ambient air pollution.ConclusionsAs the first national study in China to systematically examine the associations between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and ischemic stroke, our findings indicate that transient increase in air pollution levels may increase the risk of ischemic stroke, which may have significant public health implications for the reduction of ischemic stroke burden in China.
Partial Text: Stroke is a major public health concern that caused 6.5 million deaths and 113 million disability-adjusted life years worldwide in 2013 . Epidemiological studies have examined the associations between short-term increases in ambient air pollution and risk of mortality and morbidity from ischemic stroke (and the predominant subtype of stroke), but the findings have been inconsistent [2–7]. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, air pollution accounts for more than a quarter of the stroke burden . Compared with well-documented risk factors for ischemic stroke, such as smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity , air pollution represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is independent of changes in an individual’s behavior. Therefore, improving air quality has considerable public health implications for the reduction of ischemic stroke burden.
A total of 2,032,667 hospital admissions for ischemic stroke from 172 cities in China formed the basis of this study. Of the 172 cities, 86 cities were located in south region and 86 cities were in the north. The locations of the 172 cities are shown in Fig 1. Overall, there were 65.0% male patients and 35.5% patients aged ≥75 years. The sex distribution of ischemic stroke patients in the south versus north regions was similar, while the proportion of elderly patients was higher in southern China (Table 1). Table 2 presents the summary statistics of air pollutants and weather conditions from citywide averages of the monitors in the 172 Chinese cities between 2014 and 2016. The average annual means (standard deviation [SD]) of air pollutants were 51.5 (21.6) μg/m3 for PM2.5, 27.9 (16.5) μg/m3 for SO2, 31.0 (10.8) μg/m3 for NO2, 1.07 (0.35) mg/m3 for CO, and 86.1 (13.6) μg/m3 for O3, respectively. On average, cities in northern China have higher air pollutant levels and lower air temperatures and relative humidity. The levels of PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO were positively correlated with each other (correlation coefficient = 0.52–0.64, P < 0.001), while O3 was negatively correlated with other air pollutants (Table 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first national study in China to systematically examine the associations between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and ischemic stroke. Overall, our study suggested that transient increases in PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO were significantly associated with increased hospital admissions for ischemic stroke in 172 Chinese cities in single-pollutant models. The associations of SO2 and NO2 remained significant in two-pollutant models, but not PM2.5 and CO associations. The associations were stronger in the elderly. The associations varied with several city-level characteristics, including geographical region, air pollutant levels, and air temperatures. Our findings contributed to the limited evidence regarding the acute effects of air pollution on ischemic stroke in low- and middle-income countries. Source: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002668