Date Published: June 25, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Tatiana Kostalova, Tereza Lestinova, Petra Sumova, Michaela Vlkova, Iva Rohousova, Eduardo Berriatua, Gaetano Oliva, Eleonora Fiorentino, Aldo Scalone, Marina Gramiccia, Luigi Gradoni, Petr Volf, Alain Debrabant. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003855
Abstract: BackgroundPhlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites. During blood feeding, sand flies deposit into the host skin immunogenic salivary proteins which elicit specific antibody responses. These anti-saliva antibodies enable an estimate of the host exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also the risk for Leishmania infections. However, the use of whole salivary gland homogenates as antigen has several limitations, and therefore, recombinant salivary proteins have been tested to replace them in antibody detection assays. In this study, we have used for the first time sand fly salivary recombinant proteins in a longitudinal field study on dogs.Methodology/Principal FindingsSera from dogs naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites over two consecutive transmission seasons in a site endemic for canine leishmaniasis (CanL) were tested at different time points by ELISA for the antibodies recognizing whole saliva, single salivary 43 kDa yellow-related recombinant protein (rSP03B), and a combination of two salivary recombinant proteins, 43 kDa yellow-related protein and 35.5 kDa apyrase (rSP01). Dogs were also tested for Leishmania infantum positivity by serology, culture, and PCR and the infection status was evaluated prospectively. We found a significant association between active CanL infection and the amount of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies. Importantly, we detected a high correlation between IgG antibodies recognizing rSP03B protein and the whole salivary antigen. The kinetics of antibody response showed for both a whole saliva and rSP03B a similar pattern that was clearly related to the seasonal abundance of P. perniciosus.ConclusionsThese results suggest that P. perniciosus rSP03B protein is a valid alternative to whole saliva and could be used in large-scale serological studies. This novel method could be a practical and economically-sound tool to detect the host exposure to sand fly bites in CanL endemic areas.
Partial Text: Canine leishmaniasis (CanL), caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is a systemic and potentially fatal disease [reviewed in [1, 2]]. It may affect any organ or body fluid [reviewed in ] and can manifest variable clinical signs [reviewed in [2, 3]]. However, the majority of infected dogs do not develop any clinical signs. Importantly, L. infantum is also a causative agent of human visceral leishmaniasis and both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs have a crucial role in the epidemiology of this disease, serving as reservoirs [reviewed in ]. CanL is endemic in many regions of southern Europe and Latin America, however, climate changes and socioeconomic factors, particularly increased travelling of dogs between endemic and non-endemic areas, led to changes in the distribution of CanL in both continents [reviewed in [1, 2, 4]].
This paper describes for the first time the dynamics and diagnostic potential of antibodies recognizing P. perniciosus salivary recombinant proteins in dogs following natural exposure to the sand flies over two years.