Date Published: April 11, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Lynne Sykes, Philip A. Kalra, Darren Green, Wisit Cheungpasitporn.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This retrospective analysis quantified and compared the association between AKI and the risk of death and admission to critical care in acute admissions of different aetiology.
Data were extracted anonymously from the Trust ‘data warehouse’ for admissions between 2011and 2017. We applied KDIGO AKI criteria to establish AKI stage. Odds ratios (OR) for death and critical care admission were calculated for patients with AKI stage 3 (compared to all other patients), and patients with any stage AKI (compared to non-AKI admissions). Analyses were performed using logistic regression, adjusted for age, pre-existing CKD, co-morbid index, and gender.
There were 26,052 medical and 12,560 surgical patient episodes within sixteen common diagnoses with 3823 medical and 1520 surgical patients with AKI events. The likelihood of AKI was highest in sepsis (31.8%), and the likelihood of death in AKI 3 highest in femoral neck fracture (54.5%). AKI 3 has a OR for death for acute coronary syndrome of 12.8 and a OR of 24.6 in femoral neck fracture. Admission to critical care for any AKI in medical patients has a OR of 9.6, but increases to OR 37.2 for heart failure.
The clinical impact of AKI differs across medical and surgical diagnoses, but is a significant contributor to the risk for death and critical care admission. This body of work may indicate a benefit to a more diagnosis-specific stratified approach to AKI care.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.[1–3] It is not a disease but rather a syndrome and a reflection of the severity of an illness affecting a patient. Increasingly therefore, AKI can be used as an ‘illness barometer’ for patients. An episode of AKI has strong associations with increased length of stay, mortality, level of care, and specialty input required over the course of admission.[5–7]
The presented data provide granularity to, and add to our current understanding of, the epidemiology and associated risks of AKI in specific medical and surgical inpatient populations.