Research Article: Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides

Date Published: February 4, 2016

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Adélaïde Miarinjara, Sébastien Boyer, Joseph M. Vinetz.

Abstract: Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

Partial Text: Arthropod-borne diseases are a major concern worldwide. Every year more than 1 billion cases and over 1 million deaths from vector-borne diseases are estimated [1]. Most of these vectors are bloodsucking arthropods (e.g., mosquitoes, flies, fleas, ticks, lice) living in direct contact with humans or harbored by livestock or commensal animals [2–5]Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, dengue fever, Lyme disease, West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, and plague erupt and cause substantial mortality in humans and livestock [1,5–8]. The risk posed by these diseases can be significantly reduced by the use of insecticides during a public health emergency; insecticide-based intervention can prevent an outbreak or can limit the expansion of the disease [3,5].



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