Date Published: November 18, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Lenin Ron-Garrido, Marco Coral-Almeida, Sarah Gabriël, Washington Benitez-Ortiz, Claude Saegerman, Pierre Dorny, Dirk Berkvens, Emmanuel Nji Abatih, Ana Flisser. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004236
Abstract: BackgroundEpilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.MethodologyData on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC.Principal findingsDifferent clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC.Conclusion/SignificanceBoth disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field studies are needed to evaluate the true prevalence of cysticercosis in humans and pigs in different zones of the country in order to better implement and manage prevention and/or control campaigns.
Partial Text: Humans are the definitive hosts of Taenia solium harboring the intestinal adult tapeworm, which causes taeniasis [1;2]. Humans acquire the tapeworm through consumption of improperly cooked infected pork. The intermediate pig host gets infected by ingestion of parasite eggs, passed in the stool of a tapeworm carrier. The metacestode larval stage establishes in the pig’s muscles, brain and other tissues (cysticercosis) . Unfortunately, humans can also serve as dead-end intermediate hosts by accidentally ingesting parasite eggs and developing the metacestode larval stage . In humans, the parasite tends to locate in the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis (NCC)) causing a variety of neurological symptoms, such as seizures, headache and in many cases epilepsy [3–5].
During the study period, NCC still had an impact on the general health status of the population in Ecuador. Our findings indicate that 6294 cases of NCC and 19821 cases of epilepsy were hospitalized between 1996 and 2008. Additionally, there was a significant increasing time-trend for IHC of epilepsy, but a decreasing time-trend for IHC of NCC overall. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. Also, the number of hospitalized cases (both for epilepsy and NCC) was related to some potential indicators evaluated. A general reduction in the IHC of both conditions was observed with an increasing percentage of systems to eliminate excrements. Moreover, the presence of pig production was related to the IHC of NCC.