Date Published: September 2, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Maria Wik Markhus, Josef Daniel Rasinger, Marian Kjellevold Malde, Livar Frøyland, Siv Skotheim, Hanne Cecilie Braarud, Kjell Morten Stormark, Ingvild Eide Graff, Matej Orešič.
Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status.
Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption.
Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (μg/g RBC).
The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time.
http://www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09
Pregnancy and lactation are periods of increased nutritional vulnerability as nutrient needs are increased. To maintain the delicate balance between the needs of the mother and those of the fetus an adequate supply of nutrients is required. Some of the nutrients required protect maternal health while others affect birth outcome and infant health.
The results from the present study provides novel data regarding maternal DHA stores which decrease after birth and are determined by the DHA status in pregnancy. The maternal seafood consumption and intake of EPA/DHA-supplements positively predicted the DHA status in pregnancy and postpartum. To our knowledge, this is the first study that presents the time course of the maternal FA status during pregnancy and the first year postpartum associated to seafood consumption. An important feature of this study was that all detected FA were submitted to analyses and DHA, AA and LA were among the FA whose abundance profiles varied the most over the 15-month period. For all three the amount in RBC decreased from pregnancy towards six months postpartum, however, different factors predicted the observed changes in FA statuses, respectively.
The present study faced challenges due to recruitment issues at both T1 and T2 (28th gestational week) and T2 (three months postpartum) resulting in an untraditional longitudinal study design. The rationale for further recruiting after T1, the cohorts first and most important time point, was to represent a wide spectrum of women form the source population to minimize selection bias and maintain statistical power of the analysis, respectively. However, while inevitable, the additional recruiting may weaken the conclusions to be drawn from the longitudinal analysis performed in the present study. By chance the DHA status of participants entering the study at T2 could have had been very different to the DHA status of those participants who entered at T1. If this were the case, the significant decrease in DHA status from T1 to T2 would therefore be in parts due to new participants’ entering the study. To address this limitation, we compared participants whom we sampled blood from at all four time points and those we did not at each time point. There were no significant differences in the relative or absolute amount of LA-, AA-, or DHA in the RBC between the two “groups”. Thus, there is reason to believe that participants recruited at T2 do not differ to those recruited at T1 in their pregnancy DHA status. Thus, while not ideal, we believe that the additional recruiting did not invalidate the study design or the conclusions to be drawn.
Our results suggest that the maternal DHA status in pregnancy is pivotal for the DHA status the first year postpartum. The continuous decrease of maternal DHA status from pregnancy until six months postpartum may suggest that the maternal capacity to meet the high fetal requirements for DHA is inadequate. The functional implications of pregnancy-associated reduction in the maternal LA, AA and DHA status for fetal and neonatal development need further studies. In addition, the results indicate that increasing maternal seafood consumption or EPA/DHA-supplement intake during pregnancy may be beneficial to the mother and child ensuring sufficiently high DHA levels. These findings further indicate that promoting adequate maternal dietary intake of DHA before, during and after pregnancy is important to maintain sufficiently high levels of DHA that meet the requirements of fetal and infant development as well as requirements of the mother.