Date Published: June 14, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Arlette Jappe, David Pithan, Thomas Heinze, Sergi Lozano.
The use of bibliometric measures in the evaluation of research has increased considerably based on expertise from the growing research field of evaluative citation analysis (ECA). However, mounting criticism of such metrics suggests that the professionalization of bibliometric expertise remains contested. This paper investigates why impact metrics, such as the journal impact factor and the h-index, proliferate even though their legitimacy as a means of professional research assessment is questioned. Our analysis is informed by two relevant sociological theories: Andrew Abbott’s theory of professions and Richard Whitley’s theory of scientific work. These complementary concepts are connected in order to demonstrate that ECA has failed so far to provide scientific authority for professional research assessment. This argument is based on an empirical investigation of the extent of reputational control in the relevant research area. Using three measures of reputational control that are computed from longitudinal inter-organizational networks in ECA (1972–2016), we show that peripheral and isolated actors contribute the same number of novel bibliometric indicators as central actors. In addition, the share of newcomers to the academic sector has remained high. These findings demonstrate that recent methodological debates in ECA have not been accompanied by the formation of an intellectual field in the sociological sense of a reputational organization. Therefore, we conclude that a growing gap exists between an academic sector with little capacity for collective action and increasing demand for routine performance assessment by research organizations and funding agencies. This gap has been filled by database providers. By selecting and distributing research metrics, these commercial providers have gained a powerful role in defining de-facto standards of research excellence without being challenged by expert authority.
In recent years, the use of citation impact metrics has increased considerably. Some of these metrics are new, whereas some are variants or refinements of existing methods to measure the scientific impact of published research [1, 2]. A common aspect of these metrics is that they are based on citation data extracted from large multidisciplinary citation databases, most importantly the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus. However, very few of the new impact metrics have actually been applied in research assessment practice; instead, bibliometric research assessment has been confronted repeatedly with criticism from academic communities, which perceive these assessments as threats to academic quality control via peer review [3–5]. Nevertheless, the simplest and most common metrics, the journal impact factor (JIF)  and the Hirsch Index (h-index or HI)  have spread widely among research administrators and funding agencies over the last decade [8, 9].
In his theory of professions, Abbott [26, 27] argued that, in modern societies, professional expertise is provided in societally relevant problem areas in which either individual professionals or expert organizations apply abstract knowledge to complex individual cases. In fully established professions, such as medicine and law, the application of abstract knowledge includes diagnosis, inference, and treatment, and this three-fold professional practice is carried out in particular workplaces, such as hospitals or law firms. In their work, professionals and expert organizations often make use of specialized artefacts, including classifications, databases, expert systems, and other kinds of instruments or tools (Figs 1 and 2).
Regarding JIF, 74 publications were identified as follow-up inventions, 16 (22%) of which cite Garfield’s work in 1972 . The number of inventions, and thus indicator development, has sharply increased since the mid-2000s, following the publication by Hirsch . Twenty-seven new indicators were published over 33 years (1972–2004), but 47 new indicators were published over the subsequent 10 years (2005–2014). Putting this growth into perspective, if JIF-related indicator development continued to grow after 2005 at the same speed as before, only eight new indicators would have been published. As a measure of visibility and scientific impact, Fig 3 shows the citation frequency of each JIF-related follow-up invention since the year of its introduction. The most frequently cited publications, based on a CSS partition of the total number of citations, are (in descending order): JIF-3, JIF-20, JIF-9, JIF-10, JIF-49, and JIF-34.
This paper presents a method to empirically investigate the extent of reputational control in intellectual fields. This method consists of defining a set of comparable inventions within a circumscribed research area (i.e., novel contributions that are cognitively related) and then determining the origin of these inventions within a scientific collaboration network. The set of related inventions was defined as all citation impact metrics introduced since 1972. Based on the ECA review literature, we found two subsets, which we called “follow-up inventions” to the JIF and HI, with different dynamics in publication growth. The size of the scientific collaboration network was determined by all publications that cite any of the relevant follow-up inventions. Based on Whitley’s theory, we distinguished between inventions originating from the core, semi-core, periphery, and outsiders of this collaboration network as a way to characterize fields that are controlled by a core group of dedicated specialists (strong reputational control) versus fields that are not characterized by highly field-specific knowledge and competencies (low reputational control). Notably, our measure of reputational control does not constitute a measure of cognitive consensus. Competing claims could be raised in intellectual debates among specialists while their debate is inaccessible to methodological outsiders. In contrast, our empirical data indicate that ECA as a research area has developed little reputational control thus far, as many intellectual contributions, including the most influential ones, came from the periphery, and even from outsiders. We conclude from these findings that, though ECA can be described bibliometrically as a separate research area within the broader category of library and information sciences, the growth in the volume of publications has not been accompanied by the formation of an intellectual field with strong reputational control. This finding on the social structure of ECA is relevant for understanding the present state of professionalization in bibliometric evaluation techniques.