Date Published: March 14, 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Elise Cornelis, Ellen Gorus, Ingo Beyer, Ivan Bautmans, Patricia De Vriendt, Carol Brayne
Abstract: BackgroundAssessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount to determine impairment in everyday functioning and to ensure accurate early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders. Unfortunately, most common ADL tools are limited in their use in a diagnostic process. This study developed a new evaluation by adopting the items of the Katz Index (basic [b-] ADL) and Lawton Scale (instrumental [i-] ADL), defining them with the terminology of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), adding the scoring system of the ICF, and adding the possibility to identify underlying causes of limitations in ADL.Methods and findingsThe construct validity, interrater reliability, and discriminative validity of this new evaluation were determined. From 2015 until 2016, older persons (65–93 y) with normal cognitive ageing (healthy comparison [HC]) (n = 79), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 73), and Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 71) underwent a diagnostic procedure for neurocognitive disorders at the geriatric day hospital of the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Brussels, Belgium). Additionally, the ICF-based evaluation for b- and i-ADL was carried out. A global disability index (DI), a cognitive DI (CDI), and a physical DI (PDI) were calculated. The i-ADL-CDI showed high accuracy and higher discriminative power than the Lawton Scale in differentiating HC and MCI (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.895, 95% CI .840–.950, p = .002), MCI and AD (AUC = 0.805, 95% CI .805–.734, p = .010), and HC and AD (AUC = 0.990, 95% CI .978–1.000, p < .001). The b-ADL-DI showed significantly better discriminative accuracy than the Katz Index in differentiating HC and AD (AUC = 0.828, 95% CI .759–.897, p = .039). This study was conducted in a clinically relevant sample. However, heterogeneity between HC, MCI, and AD and the use of different methods of reporting ADL might limit this study.ConclusionsThis evaluation of b- and i-ADL can contribute to the diagnostic differentiation between cognitively healthy ageing and neurocognitive disorders in older age. This evaluation provides more clarity and nuance in assessing everyday functioning by using an ICF-based terminology and scoring system. Also, the possibility to take underlying causes of limitations into account seems to be valuable since it is crucial to determine the extent to which cognitive decline is responsible for functional impairment in diagnosing neurocognitive disorders. Though further prospective validation is still required, the i-ADL-CDI might be useful in clinical practice since it identifies impairment in i-ADL exclusively because of cognitive limitations.
Partial Text: Health services are dealing with an increasing number of older patients. Although most seniors are in reasonably good health and living an active life, a considerable number of them are at risk of developing major chronic conditions and mental disorders such as dementia. Worldwide, it is estimated that dementia affects 46.8 million persons, which causes great stress to medical, social, and informal care [1,2]. Several interventions have already proven efficient in reducing caregiver strain, psychological morbidity, and delaying or avoiding admissions in residential care. Since such interventions may be more effective early in the disease course, early diagnosis of dementia is pivotal [3,4]. In this regard, the concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is interesting since it is seen as a transitional zone between normal aging and dementia. However, MCI is a heterogeneous concept in its clinical presentation and its progression to dementia; mainly, amnestic MCI (a-MCI) has high risk of dementia, but some persons remain stable or even revert to normal cognition [5–8]. Boundaries between normal aging, MCI, and mild dementia are vague, and discussion about the MCI criteria and their operationalization is ongoing [6,9]. The differentiation between mild and major neurocognitive disorders (NCD)—referring to the new version of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) —may be a step in a good direction since this entails a stronger emphasis on “independence in activities of daily living (ADL)” [11–14]. The distinction between mild and major NCD is determined by the extent to which cognitive decline interferes with everyday functioning [12,15]. In major NCD or dementia, cognitive impairment influences independence in everyday functioning in a negative way. In mild NCD or MCI, individuals remain autonomous [15,16], although subtle problems may already occur in complex activities [12,17–21]. The process of functional decline shows a typical and distinctive progression [22,23]. Instrumental ADL (i-ADL) such as cooking, shopping, and managing medication will become slightly limited in mild NCD and will require support in major NCD [18,23–26]. Basic ADL (b-ADL), which includes personal hygiene, dressing, and eating, remain stable the longest . Only in major NCD does one need the support of others in performing b-ADL [23,28,29]. Consequently, assessment of ADL is paramount to determine the degree of impairment in everyday functioning and to underpin accurate diagnostic classification in NCD [9,12,15,30]. Besides, ADL disability might increase the risk for incident dementia. In that way, an evaluation of ADL might be useful not just as diagnostic tool but also as an indicator of the risk for future dementia [12,30].
The study protocol was based on the STARD criteria, developed to improve the completeness and transparency of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy .
This study developed and validated an evaluation of everyday functioning in b- and i-ADL by (1) adopting the activities of the Katz Index and Lawton Scale and linking them to the definitions and codes of the ICF, (2) by developing a scoring system based on the performance qualifiers of the ICF, and (3) by adding the possibility to take causes of limitations in performance into account. This new evaluation takes the person as his or her own reference. By doing so, it is possible to compute a set of indices. This study determined the construct validity, discriminative validity, and interrater reliability of this new evaluation in a geriatric population.