Date Published: March 16, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Thierry De Meeûs, Jérémy Bouyer, Sophie Ravel, Philippe Solano, Adalgisa Caccone. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003497
Abstract: BackgroundThe role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.Methodology/Principal FindingsIn this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes) from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments) were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.Conclusions/SignificanceThese results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.
Partial Text: A capital step for species diversification is the initiation of some kind of disruptive selection, driving the newly diverged group of entities to some level of genetic adaptive divergence [1,2]. There has been a continuous debate on the respective role of geography and ecology in speciation, especially the speed at which these factors drive organisms to divergence . These debates are important as they focus on key processes involved in evolution. For parasites and their vectors, the role of ecology and geography in driving divergence has important implications for management, as rapid evolution can occur in response to control practices or introductions to new environments . This can have consequences on dispersal capacity , behaviour  and vectorial capacities [6–8].
The importance of geographic distance for determining genetic relationships between tsetse populations has been recurrently reported [9,19,39]. Its predominant effect above the effect of river basin was an expected result, at least for G. p. gambiensis  and is newly demonstrated here for G. p. palpalis.