Date Published: April 19, 2018
Author(s): Yos Adi Prakoso, Chylen Setiyo Rini, Roeswandono Wirjaatmadja.
The tropical area has a lot of herbal medicines such as Aloe vera (AV), Ananas comosus (AC), and Sansevieria masoniana (SM). All the three have a unique potential effect as an antibacterial and wound-healing promoter. The aim of this study is to explore the role of AV, AC, and SM on the skin wound infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Forty-five adult female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250–300 grams were divided into 5 groups. All the groups were exposed to two round full-thickness punch biopsy and infected with MRSA. The group C was the control group/untreated; group BC was treated with base cream/without extract; group AV was treated with 75% AV cream; group AC was treated with 75% AC cream, and group SM was treated with 75% SM cream. The wounds were observed on days 5, 10, and 15. The healing of skin wounds was measured by a percentage of closure, skin tensile strength, and histopathology. The result showed that AV, AC, and SM have a similar potential effect on healing in the wound that was infected with MRSA compared to the groups C and BC (P < 0.05). It shows that all the three herbal formulations can be used as the alternative therapy to the wound infected with MRSA.
Staphylococcus aureus is a common opportunistic bacterium in both human skin and animal skin . This bacterium became a serious problem as it is resistant to methicillin. Nowadays, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem and is not limited geographically . It is also one of the leading bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infection . MRSA infection causes significant morbidity and mortality , including septic shock, endocarditis, pneumonia, and bacteremia . The major route of infection of MRSA is via open wounds . Open wounds such as excisional wound are complicated by infection, and they cause prolonged and delayed wound healing . The delayed wound healing may be because there is a failure of CD8+ in another mediated immune response to eliminate the bacteria . The failure is caused by incorrect treatments or high bacterial concentration .
In the preliminary study of the qualitative phytochemical screening of all the three extracts showed various components such as tannin, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol, and glycoside. However, all the three have tannin, saponin, and alkaloid (Table 1). In addition, the antimicrobial activity of AV, AC, and SM on the MRSA isolate showed similar results based on the disc diffusion test. The 75% concentration of the plant extracts was effective against the MRSA isolate, and it was proved by the complete inhibition zone in intermediate results for AC and SM extracts and, however, susceptible results for the AV extract (Table 2).
AV, AC, and SM have been used as traditional medicines containing various components. All the three herbs have different components: AV (tannin, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloid, and glycoside); AC (tannin, saponin, flavonoid, and alkaloid); and SM (tannin, saponin, alkaloid, phenol, and glycoside) (Table 1). Those various components are secondary metabolites produced by plants to fight against microorganisms in the environment , and they can be used as herbal antibacterial agents in vitro [19–21].
The present study demonstrated that Aloe vera (AV), Ananas comosus (AC), and Sansevieria masoniana (SM) have potential effects to promote the healing of infected wounds.