Date Published: June 22, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Victoria Hemming, Terry V. Walshe, Anca M. Hanea, Fiona Fidler, Mark A. Burgman, Judi Hewitt.
Natural resource management uses expert judgement to estimate facts that inform important decisions. Unfortunately, expert judgement is often derived by informal and largely untested protocols, despite evidence that the quality of judgements can be improved with structured approaches. We attribute the lack of uptake of structured protocols to the dearth of illustrative examples that demonstrate how they can be applied within pressing time and resource constraints, while also improving judgements.
In this paper, we demonstrate how the IDEA protocol for structured expert elicitation may be deployed to overcome operational challenges while improving the quality of judgements. The protocol was applied to the estimation of 14 future abiotic and biotic events on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Seventy-six participants with varying levels of expertise related to the Great Barrier Reef were recruited and allocated randomly to eight groups. Each participant provided their judgements using the four-step question format of the IDEA protocol (‘Investigate’, ‘Discuss’, ‘Estimate’, ‘Aggregate’) through remote elicitation. When the events were realised, the participant judgements were scored in terms of accuracy, calibration and informativeness.
The results demonstrate that the IDEA protocol provides a practical, cost-effective, and repeatable approach to the elicitation of quantitative estimates and uncertainty via remote elicitation. We emphasise that i) the aggregation of diverse individual judgements into pooled group judgments almost always outperformed individuals, and ii) use of a modified Delphi approach helped to remove linguistic ambiguity, and further improved individual and group judgements. Importantly, the protocol encourages review, critical appraisal and replication, each of which is required if judgements are to be used in place of data in a scientific context. The results add to the growing body of literature that demonstrates the merit of using structured elicitation protocols. We urge decision-makers and analysts to use insights and examples to improve the evidence base of expert judgement in natural resource management.
Protecting and managing ecosystems requires that we are able to clearly identify, assess and communicate threats, and make effective decisions in a timely manner [1, 2]. Advances in our ability to collect, store and utilise data continue to provide conservation scientists a large array of sophisticated tools for decision-making. For example, citizen science , drone technology , remote sensing , and environmental DNA [6, 7], provide new and practical ways to collect data. This information can be better shared via cloud databases, and used in predictive models, maps, and decision support tools .
Expert judgement is not a substitute for the careful collection of empirical data. However, often the data required to inform critical decisions is absent or uninformative and expert judgement is unavoidable . Structured protocols have been widely advocated as a means to improve the transparency, accountability and quality of expert judgements, and are used across a range of scientific domains. However, their adoption in natural resource management has been limited. We have suggested a range of possible reasons for this, including few examples demonstrating how structured protocols can be implemented within the financial and practical constraints of many natural resource problems, while leading to improvements in judgements.
Natural resource managers often face difficult decisions and lack empirical data to inform those decisions. While the application of models and new technologies affords increasing ways to acquire data, reliance on expert judgement appears unavoidable. Our study demonstrates that in these situations we can never guarantee that the judgements will be accurate or well-calibrated. However, through the application of structured elicitation protocols we can ensure that these judgements are as accurate and well-calibrated as possible, without incurring onerous costs. Furthermore, by applying these protocols we can apply to judgements the same requirements of review, repeatability and transparency as empirical data. The advantages of structured elicitation protocols have been identified for some time. This study demonstrates that such protocols can be applied within the financial and practical constraints of many natural resource problems, without compromising resulting judgements.