Date Published: October 31, 2013
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Eri Saijo, Hae-Eun Kang, Jifeng Bian, Kristi G. Bowling, Shawn Browning, Sehun Kim, Nora Hunter, Glenn C. Telling, David Westaway.
Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP) primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg) mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A) at (OvPrP-A136) infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S) prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V) at 136 (OvPrP-V136) infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U), diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb) PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to the otherwise unfavorable U conformer. This epigenetic mechanism thus expands the range of selectable conformations that can be adopted by PrP, and therefore the variety of options for strain propagation.
Prion-mediated phenotypes and diseases result from the conformationally protean characteristics of particular amyloidogenic proteins. The prion state has the property of interacting with proteins in their non-prion conformation, thus inducing further prion conversion. The prion phenomenon has been described for a variety of different proteins involved in diverse biological processes ranging from translation termination in yeast, memory in Aplysia, antiviral innate immune responses , and most recently the action of the p53 tumor suppressor . Since the prion and non-prion conformations have differing biological properties, the net result of this replicative process is protein-mediated information transfer, the characteristics of which vary from prion to prion. The ubiquity of prion replication indicates that this is a wide-ranging of means of information transfer in biological systems.